Redrawing the Map: Varieties of “Spiritual,” “Religious” and “Secular” Lives

  • Barbara KellerEmail author
  • Heinz Streib
  • Ralph W. Hood


This chapter summarizes the trajectories laid out in the chapters focusing on narrative constructions of faith development in biographical context (Chaps.  16,  18 22 and  26). Differences and similarities which are aligned to and which cut across focus group s (defined by self-identification as “religious” vs. “spiritual” and the distinction of theist vs non- or atheist , see Chap.  4), affiliation, and cultural context are highlighted. Different trajectories are reviewed, and different discursive functions of being “spiritual” are outlined. The map we draw is, however, based on a selection of interviews obtained in this project. It will need to be revised as we study more interviews and map new territory, including our third volume that will be based upon longitudinal research now in progress.


Spirituality Biography Case study 


  1. Bartlett, F. (1932). Remembering. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Fowler, J. W. (1981). Stages of faith. San Francisco: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  3. Graham, J., Haidt, J., & Nosek, B. A. (2009). Liberals and conservatives rely on different sets of moral foundations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96(5), 1029–1046.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Halbwachs, M. (1980). The collective memory. New York: Harper & Row Colophon Books.Google Scholar
  5. Keller, B., & Streib, H. (2013). Faith development, religious styles and biographical narratives: Methodological perspectives. Journal of Empirical Theology, 26, 1–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Koschorke, A. (2012). Wahrheit und Erfindung. Grundzüge einer allgemeinen Erzähltheorie. [Truth and fiction. Basic features of a general narratology] Frankfurt: Fischer.Google Scholar
  7. Labov, W., & Waletzky, J. (1967). Narrative analysis: oral versions of personal experience. In I. Helm (Ed.), Essays on the verbal and visual arts. Proceedings of the 1966 Annual Spring Meeting of the American Ethnological Society (pp. 12–44). Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press.Google Scholar
  8. Streib, H. (2005). Faith development research revisited: accounting for diversity in structure, content, and narrativity of faith. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 15, 99–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Streib, H., & Hood, R. W. (2013). Modeling the religious field: Religion, spirituality, mysticism and related world views. Implicit Religion, 16, 137–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of BielefeldBielefeldGermany
  2. 2.University of Tennessee at ChattanoogaChattanoogaUSA

Personalised recommendations