Advertisement

Coordinates for Mapping “Spirituality”

  • Heinz StreibEmail author
  • Ralph W. HoodJr.
Chapter

Abstract

The entire volume aims at discovering new perspectives on whether, how and why “spirituality” makes a difference. In this context, this chapter unites central psychological perspectives and presents a new way for mapping “spirituality” and explains the selection of coordinates for such mapping. Thus, this last chapter in the Part on “measuring characteristics and effects of spirituality” draws conclusions from the previous chapters: As detailed in Chaps.  11 and  12, two variables stand out in their effects on self-rated “spirituality”: mysticism (assessed by Hood’s Mysticism Scale ) and openness to experience (a subscale of the NEO Five Factor Inventory ). We not only argue in this chapter that these two variables can be used as coordinates for mapping “spirituality” in a two-dimensional space, but demonstrate that “spiritual”/“religious” self-identification groups, semantic preferences, religious schema ta and even single cases can plausibly be plotted in the two-dimensional space of openness to experience and mysticism. Thus, we conclude that these coordinates allow for accounting for and visualizing the difference that “spirituality” makes.

Keywords

Spirituality Openness Mysticism Spiritual transformation 

References

  1. Allport, G. W. (1954). Religion and prejudice. In The Nature of Prejudice (pp. 444–457). Cambridge: Perseus Books 1979.Google Scholar
  2. Campbell, M. L., Lee, S. A., & Cothran, D. L. (2010). Mysticism matters: Distinguishing between intrinsic religiosity, extrinsic religiosity, and spirituality using higher-order factors of personality and mysticism. Archive for the Psychology of Religion/Archiv für Religionspsychologie, 32, 195–216.Google Scholar
  3. Costa, P. T., & McCrae, R. R. (1985). Revised NEO personality inventory (NEO PI-R) and NEO five-factor-inventory (NEO-FFI). Professional manual. Odessa: Psychological Assessment Resources 1992.Google Scholar
  4. Digman, J. M. (1997). Higher-order factors of the big five. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 1246–1256.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Hood, R. W. (1975). The construction and preliminary validation of a measure of reported mystical experience. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 14, 29–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Hood, R. W., Hill, P. C., & Spilka, B. (2009). The psychology of religion: An empirical approach (4th ed.). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  7. McAdams, D. P., & de St Aubin, E. D. (1992). A theory of generativity and its assessment through self-report, behavioral acts, and narrative themes in autobiography. Journal of Adult Development, 62, 1003–1015.Google Scholar
  8. McCrae, R. R., Jang, K. L., Ando, J., Ono, Y., Yamagata, S., & Riemann, R. (2008). Substance and artifact in the higher-order factors of the big five. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95, 442–455.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Piedmont, R. L., & Wilkins, T. A. (2013a). Spirituality, religiousness, and personality: Theoretical foundations and empirical applications. In K. I. Pargament, J. J. Exline, & J. W. Jones (Eds.), APA handbooks in psychology: APA handbook of psychology, religion and spirituality (Vol. 1, pp. 173–186). Washington: APA.Google Scholar
  10. Piedmont, R. L., & Wilkins, T. A. (2013b). The role of personality in understanding religious and spiritual constructs. In R. F. Paloutzian & C. L. Park (Eds.), Handbook of the psychology of religion and spirituality (2nd ed., pp. 292–311). New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  11. Ryff, C. D. (1989). Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 1069–1081.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ryff, C. D., & Singer, B. H. (1998). The role of purpose in life and growth in positive human health. In P. T. P. Wong & P. S. Fry (Eds.), The human quest for meaning. Handbook of psychological research and clinical applications (pp. 213–235). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  13. Schwartz, S. H. (1992). Universals in the content and structure of values: Theoretical advances and empirical tests in 20 countries. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (pp. 1–65). Orlando: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  14. Schwartz, S. H. (2003). A proposal for measuring value orientations across nations. In Questionnaire Development Report of the European Social Survey (pp. 259–319).Google Scholar
  15. Streib, H., Hood, R. W., & Klein, C. (2010). The Religious Schema Scale: Construction and initial validation of a quantitative measure for religious styles. The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 20, 151–172. doi: 10.1080/10508619.2010.481223 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Wood, B. T., Worthington, E. L., Exline, J. J., Yali, A. M., Aten, J. D., & McMinn, M. R. (2010). Development, refinement, and psychometric properties of the attitudes toward god scale (ATGS-9). Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 2, 148–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of BielefeldBielefeldGermany
  2. 2.University of TennesseeChattanoogaUSA

Personalised recommendations