Advertisement

Religious Schemata and “Spirituality”

  • Heinz StreibEmail author
  • Ralph W. HoodJr.
  • Constantin Klein
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter presents new perspectives for understanding “spirituality” that emerge from its relation with religious styles and schemata in the data of the Bielefeld-based Cross-cultural Study on “Spirituality.” ANOVA results with our focus groups indicate that respondents who self-identify as “more spiritual than religious” in both the USA and Germany have lower scores on truth of texts and teachings (ttt), a subscale of the Religious Schema Scale (RSS); still lower on ttt, however, are the respondents who self-identify as “neither religious nor spiritual” or as “atheists ” or “non-theists.” Results further indicate that self-identification as “spiritual” (“more spiritual atheist /non-theists” excluded) is associated with a preference for xenosophia/ inter-religious dialog (xenos). Religious schema groups, which were constructed according to exclusively high agreement with either ttt, ftr, or xenos, profile the relation of the religious schema ta to “spirituality” and “religion” further and confirm the relation of “spirituality” with dialogical, xenosophic attitudes. Finally, regression and mediation analyses using structural equation modelling show that ttt predicts the self-attribution “religious” stronger than the self-attribution “spiritual,” while xenos for most respondents predicts the self-attribution “spiritual,” rather than the self-attribution “religious.” The religious schema ta have strong effects in predicting and mediating the predictions on self-rated “religion” and, more important for our project, on self-rated “spirituality.”

Keywords

Spirituality Religious schema Religious style Openness Mysticism 

References

  1. Allport, G. W. (1954). Religion and prejudice. In The nature of prejudice (pp. 444–457). Cambridge: Perseus Books 1979.Google Scholar
  2. Bentler, P. M. (1990). Comparative fit indexes in structural models. Psychological Bulletin, 107, 238–246. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.107.2.238 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1992). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. Sociological Methods & Research, 21, 230–258. doi: 10.1177/0049124192021002005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  5. Costa, P. T., & McCrae, R. R. (1985). Revised NEO personality inventory (NEO PI-R) and NEO five-factor-inventory (NEO-FFI). Professional manual. Odessa: Psychological Assessment Resources 1992.Google Scholar
  6. Fowler, J. W. (1981). Stages of faith. The psychology of human development and the quest for meaning. San Francisco: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  7. Ghorbani, N., Watson, P. J., Geranmayepour, S., & Chen, Z. (2013). Analyzing the spirituality of Muslim experiential religiousness: Relationships with psychological measures of Islamic religiousness in Iran. Archive for the Psychology of Religion/Archiv für Religionspsychologie, 35, 233–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hood, R. W. (1975). The construction and preliminary validation of a measure of reported mystical experience. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 14, 29–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kamble, S. V., Watson, P. J., Marigoudar, S., & Chen, Z. (2014). Varieties of openness and religious commitment in India: Relationships of attitudes toward Hinduism, Hindu religious reflection, and religious schema. Archive for the Psychology of Religion/Archiv für Religionspsychologie, 36(2), 172–198. doi: 10.1163/15736121-12341283 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Koenig, H. G. (1995). Religion as cognitive schema. The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 5, 31–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. McIntosh, D. N. (1995). Religion-as-schema, with implications for the relation between religion and coping. The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 5, 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Paloutzian, R. F., & Smith, B. S. (1995). The utility of the religion-as-schema model. The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 5, 17–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Park, C. L. (2005). Religion as a meaning-making framework in coping with life stress. Journal of Social Issues, 61, 707–729.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Park, C. L. (2007). Religiousness/spirituality and health: A meaning systems perspective. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 30, 319–328.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Streib, H. (1991). Hermeneutics of metaphor, symbol and narrative in faith development theory (European University Studies, Ser. 23, Vol. 408). Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  16. Streib, H. (1997). Religion als Stilfrage. Zur Revision struktureller Differenzierung von Religion im Blick auf die Analyse der pluralistisch-religiösen Lage der Gegenwart. Archive for the Psychology of Religion/Archiv für Religionspychologie, 22, 48–69. [for English translation, see Streib, 2003].Google Scholar
  17. Streib, H. (2001). Faith development theory revisited: The religious styles perspective. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 11, 143–158. doi: 10.1207/S15327582IJPR1103_02 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Streib, H. (2003). Religion as a question of style: Revising the structural differentiation of religion from the perspective of the analysis of the contemporary pluralistic-religious situation. International Journal for Practical Theology, 7, 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Streib, H. (2005). Faith development research revisited: Accounting for diversity in structure, content, and narrativity of faith. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 15, 99–121. doi: 10.1207/s15327582ijpr1502_1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Streib, H. (2007). Faith development and a way beyond fundamentalism. In C. Timmerman, D. Hutsebaut, S. Mels, W. Nonneman, & W. van Herck (Eds.), Faith-based radicalism: Christianity, Islam and Judaism between constructive activism and destructive fanaticism (pp. 151–167). Brussels: P.I.E.-Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  21. Streib, H. (2013). Conceptualisation et mesure du développement religieux en termes de schémas et de styles religieux—résultats et nouvelles considerations [conceptualization and measurement of religious development in terms of religious schemata and religious styles]. In P. Y. Brandt & J. M. Day (Eds.), Psychologie du développement religieux: questions classiques et perspectives contemporaines (pp. 39–76). Geneva: Labor et Fides.Google Scholar
  22. Streib, H., Hood, R. W., Keller, B., Csöff, R.-M., & Silver, C. (2009). Deconversion. Qualitative and quantitative results from cross-cultural research in Germany and the United States of America. Research in Contemporary Religion, 5, Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.Google Scholar
  23. Streib, H., Hood, R. W., & Klein, C. (2010). The religious schema scale: Construction and initial validation of a quantitative measure for religious styles. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 20, 151–172. doi: 10.1080/10508619.2010.481223 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Streib, H., & Klein, C. (2014). Religious styles predict inter-religious prejudice: A study of German adolescents with the religious schema scale. The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 24, 151–163. doi: 10.1080/10508619.2013.808869 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Watson, P. J., Chen, Z., & Morris, R. J. (2014). Varieties of quest and the religious openness hypothesis within religious fundamentalist and biblical foundationalist ideological surrounds. Religions, 5, 1–20. doi: 10.3390/rel5010001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Heinz Streib
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ralph W. HoodJr.
    • 2
  • Constantin Klein
    • 1
  1. 1.University of BielefeldBielefeldGermany
  2. 2.University of TennesseeChattanoogaUSA

Personalised recommendations