Development and Improvement of Two Methods of Different Complexity to Simulate Atmospheric Boundary Layer Turbulence for Aircraft Design Studies

Conference paper
Part of the Notes on Numerical Fluid Mechanics and Multidisciplinary Design book series (NNFM, volume 131)

Abstract

In this paper we present two different methods to provide turbulence data for aircraft design studies. The first method is based on the discrete gust approach which describes one single gust event as analytical approximation. Based on mean gust shape calculations in turbulent wind fields obtained from high-resolution large-eddy simulations (LES), we suggest both a new one- and two-dimensional gust shape model. The one-dimensional gust shapes differ significantly from the classical one-minus-cosine gust. Two-dimensional mean gust shapes show elliptically shaped contours with varying aspect ratios for different gust diameters.

The second and more complex method provides three-dimensional turbulent wind speed data from LES. This approach allows to consider explicitly the influence of buildings on aircraft during take off or landing. In order to quantify the influence of an idealized airport building on aircraft, a virtual crosswind landing trough the wake of a building was simulated within the LES data. Following the 7-knots-criterion, the building induced flow disturbances may have a significant influence on landing aircraft. Both methods will be used in future to initialize a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to simulate the flow around an aircraft.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Anon.: “Federal Aviation Regulations - Part 25 - Airworthiness Standards: Transport Category Airplanes". Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, Washington, DC (2012)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Anon.: “International standards and recommended practices", AERODROMES ANNEX 14, Volume 1 aerodrome design and operations, Chapter 4: Obstacle restriction and removal (1995)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Blocken, B., Carmeliet, J.: Pedestrian Wind Environment around Buildings: Literature Review and Practical Examples. Journal of Thermal Env. and Bldg. Sci., 28(2) 107–159 (2004)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Camp, D.W.: Wind velocity measurements of low level wind gust amplitude and duration and statistical gust shape characteristics. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Technical Memorandum (1968)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Deardoff, J.W.: Stratocumulus-topped mixed layers derived from a three-dimensional model. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 18, 495–527 (1980)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Frost, W., Long, B.H., Turner, R.E.: Engineering Handbook on the Atmospheric Environmental Guidelines for Use in Wind Turbine Generator Development. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Technical Paper 1359 (1978)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hau, E.: Wind turbines. 2nd edn. Springer, Heidelberg. 783. p, (2006)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hoblit, M.: Gust Loads on Aircraft: Concepts and application. American Insitute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Washington D.C (1988)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kelleners, P., Heinrich, R.: Accurate simulation of interaction of airfoils and aircraft with atmospheric gust and turbulence. In: Fourth Joint Symposium of DFG FOR 1066 and DLR-Airbus CASE: Simulation of Wing and Nacelle Stall. Braunschweig, Germany (2014)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Knigge, C., Auerswald, T., Raasch, S., Bange, J.: Comparison of two methods simulating highly resolved atmospheric turbulence data for study of stall effects. Computers and Fluids 108, 57–66 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Knigge, C., Raasch, S.: Improvement and development of one- and two-dimensional discrete gust models using a large-eddy simulation model. Submitted to Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics (2014)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kristensen, M., Casanova, M.S., Troen, I.: In search of a gust definition. Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 55, 91–107 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Krüs, H.W., Haanstrab, J.O., van der Hama, R. Wichers Schreurc, B.: Numerical simulations of wind measurements at Amsterdam Airport Schiphol. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 91, 1215–1223 (2003)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Nieuwpoort, A.M.H., Gooden, J.H.M., de Prins, J.L.: Wind criteria due to obstacles at and around airports, NLR-CR-2006-261, National Aerospace Laboratory (2006)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Pratt, K.G., Walker, W.G.: A Revised Gust-Load Formula and A Re-Evaluation of V-G Data Taken on Civil Transport Airplanes From 1933 to 1950. NACA TR-1206 (1954)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Raasch, S., Schröter, M.: PALM - A large-eddy simulation model performing on massively parallel computers. Meteorol. Z. 10, 363–372 (2001)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Schwamborn, D., Gerhold, T., Heinrich, R.: The DLR TAU-Code: recent applications in research and industry. In: Proceedings of European Conference on Computational Fluid Dynamics ECCOMAS CDF 2006, TU Delft, The Netherland (2006)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sleeper, K.S.: Spanwise Measurements of Vertical Components of Atmospheric Turbulence. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Technical Paper 2963 (1990)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Stull, R.B.: An introduction to boundary layer meteorology. Kluver Academic Publishers, 666, p. (1988)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Verheij, F.J., Cleijne, J.W., Leene, J.A.: Gust modelling for wind loading. J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn. 42, 947–958 (1992)CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institut für Meteorologie und KlimatologieLeibniz Universität HannoverHannoverGermany

Personalised recommendations