Working the Modes: Understanding the Value of Multiple Modalities of Technologies for Learning and Training Success

  • Eileen Smith
  • Ron Tarr
  • Cali Fidopiastis
  • Michael Carney
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9179)


Technology for learning has a great potential to decrease training time, as well as impart complex knowledge to the learner. However, one technology may not provide the complete learning experience. We discuss this issue using a fielded fire rescue incident command simulation-based training. Of first importance is properly defining the training material, and then assessing the efficacy of the training through scenario-based critique. The immersive nature of the incident command simulation allowed learners of all ages and backgrounds to experience the realism of a fire command post. Newer immersive technologies are discussed that will support transfer of training, as well as provide seamless integration into real world settings. Finally, we advocate for the development of direct brain measures of the learning process within operational environments. In this way, instructional design becomes a true brain-based approach and selecting the supporting technology for learning delivery is more exact for the learning purpose.


Learning Training Modeling and simulation Education Virtual reality Psychophysiological metrics Transfer Mastery Systems design Immersion Mixed reality Assessment 


  1. 1.
    Tarr, R., Smith, E., Totten, E., Carney, M., Wajda, M.: Utilizing simulation and game-based learning to enhance incident commander training. In: Inter-service/Industry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (I/ITSEC), Orlando, Florida (2014)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gagne, R.: Military training and principles of learning. Am. Psychol. 17, 263–276 (1962)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Squire, L.R.: Memory and Brain. Oxford University Press, New York (1987)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sweller, J., van Merriënboer, J.J.G., Paas, F.: Cognitive architecture and instructional design. Educ. Psychol. Rev. 10, 251–296 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Brünken, R., Plass, J.L., Leutner, D.: Direct measurement of cognitive load in multimedia learning. Educ. Psychol. 38, 53–62 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Berka, C., Levendowski, D., Lumicao, M., Yau, A., Davis, G., Zivkovic, V.: EEG correlates of task engagement and mental workload in vigilance, learning and memory tasks. Aviat. Space Envir. Md. 78(5), B231–B244 (2007)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Berka, C., Levendowski, D.J., Cvetinovic, M., Petrovic, M.M., Davis, G.F., Lumicao, M.N., Popovic, M.V., Zivkovic, V.T., Olmstead, R.E., Westbrook, P.: Real-time analysis of EEG indices of alertness, cognition and memory acquired with a wireless EEG headset. Special Issue Int. J. Hum-Comput. Augmented Cogn. 17(2), 151–170 (2004)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Poythress, M., Russell, C., Siegel, S., Tremoulet, P., Craven, P., Berka, C., Levendowski, D., Chang, D., Baskin, A., Champney, R., Hale, K.: Correlation between expected workload and EEG Indices of cognitive workload and task engagement. In: Schmorrow, D., Stanney, K., Reeves, L. (eds.) Augmented Cognition: Past, Present and Future, pp. 32–44. Strategic Analysis Inc, Arlington, VA (2006)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fidopiastis, C.M., Rizzo, A.A., Rolland, J.P.: User-centered virtual environment design for cognitive rehabilitation. J. of Neuroengin. Rehabil. 7, 11 (2010). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Oskorus, A.L., Andre, T.S., Ripley, T.R., Meyer, R.E., Fidopiastis, C.M., Andrews, D.H., Fitzgerald, P.C.: An approach to accelerated learning and psychophysiological measures of engagement. In: The Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation & Education Conference (I/ITSEC), Orlando, FL (2011)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eileen Smith
    • 1
  • Ron Tarr
    • 1
  • Cali Fidopiastis
    • 1
  • Michael Carney
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute for Simulation and TrainingUniversity of Central FloridaOrlandoUSA
  2. 2.Canon USA, IncMelvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations