Skip to main content

Living Healthier and Longer: A Life Course Perspective on Education and Health

  • Chapter
Handbook of the Life Course

Abstract

Decades of research documents a strong and enduring relationship between educational attainment and health and longevity. Our chapter begins by briefly reviewing the theoretical explanations for this important social fact and highlighting key ways in which the life course perspective has fundamentally shaped the research questions and debates in the area. From there we outline three directions in which we argue further application of the life course perspective would benefit our understanding: (1) merging selection and causal effect processes into a long-term, multigenerational view; (2) linking health across the years in which people largely achieve their educations, and the short-term processes involved, with longer-term processes and mid- to late-life health outcomes; and (3) assessing historical trends in the mediating mechanisms and their implications for health disparities.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
$34.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or eBook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 99.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 129.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD 199.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others

Notes

  1. 1.

    Some scholars suggest that health disparities widened even in the face of major public health improvements; others describe initial declines in disparities before widening disparities over the latter half of the Twentieth Century. For example, Mirowsky and Ross (2003) argue that disparities widened even with public health improvements early in the century. Lynch (2003) claims public health improvements disproportionately benefited those of higher socioeconomic status, consistent with this view. Schnittker (2004), focusing on income disparities, argues disparities were reduced as people shared broadly in the benefits of the public health infrastructure improvements, but widened as later advances in knowledge and technology required more effort and choice on the part of individuals to improve health. Masters et al. (2012) also describes a narrowing at midcentury followed by widening gap thereafter.

  2. 2.

    College enrollment in the United States is currently at an all-time high (20.6 million students) and is expected to increase 14 % by 2019 (Snyder and Dillow 2012).

  3. 3.

    At each wave, respondents were asked, “Overall, relative to people your age, do you think your physical health over the past year has been…” (responses range on a five-point scale from “much poorer than average” to “much better than average”). For the purposes of these analyses, this outcome was dichotomized (1 = somewhat or much better than average). These findings are based upon a subsample of 11,441 MTF respondents who completed surveys from ages 19 to 28 (encompassing 38,231 person waves).

  4. 4.

    Estimate = 0.039; Robust standard error = 0.029; Odds ratio = 1.039; p = 0.191.

  5. 5.

    Estimate = 0.203; Robust standard error = 0.041; Odds ratio = 1.225; p = 0.001.

  6. 6.

    Estimate = 0.069; Robust standard error = 0.048; Odds ration = 1.071; p = 0.152.

References

  • Amato, P. R., & Kane, J. B. (2011). Life-course pathways and the psychosocial adjustment of young adult women. Journal of Marriage and Family, 73, 279–295. doi:10.1111/j.1741-3737.2010.00804.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Arum, R., & Roksa, J. (2011). Academically adrift: Limited learning on college campuses. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bachman, J. G., O’Malley, P. M., Schulenberg, J. E., Johnston, L. D., Freedman-Doan, P., & Messersmith, E. E. (2008). The education-drug use connection: How successes and failures in school relate to adolescent smoking, drinking, drug use, and delinquency. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates/Taylor & Francis.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bachman, J. G., Staff, J., O’Malley, P., Schulenberg, J. E., & Freedman-Doan, P. (2011). Student work intensity: New evidence on links to educational attainment and problem behaviors. Developmental Psychology, 47, 344–363.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bachman, J. G., Staff, J., O’Malley, P., & Freedman-Doan, P. (2013). Race-ethnicity and socioeconomic status moderate how student paid work intensity is related to scholastic performance and substance use. Developmental Psychology, 49, 2125–2134.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Baker, D. P., Leon, J., Smith Greenaway, E. G., Collins, J., & Movit, M. (2011). The education effect on population health: A reassessment. Population and Development Review, 37, 307–332.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Baker, D. P., Salinas, D., & Eslinger, P. J. (2012). An envisioned bridge: Schooling as a neurocognitive developmental institution. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 2S, S6–S17.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bauldry, S., Shanahan, M. J., Boardman, J. D., Miech, R. A., & Macmillan, R. (2012). A life course model of self-rated health through adolescence and young adulthood. Social Science & Medicine, 75, 1311–1320.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Baum, S., Ma, J., & Payea, K. (2010). Education pays, 2010: The benefits of higher education for individuals and society. Washington, DC: The College Board.

    Google Scholar 

  • Beckett, M. (2000). Converging health inequalities in later life—An artifact of mortality selection? Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 41, 106–109.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Behrman, J. R., Kohler, H., Jensen, V. M., Pedersen, D., Petersen, I., Bingley, P., & Christensen, K. (2011). Does more schooling reduce hospitalization and delay mortality? New evidence based on Danish twins. Demography, 48, 1347–1375.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brand, J. E., & Xie, Y. (2010). Who benefits most from college? Evidence for negative selection in heterogeneous economic returns to higher education. American Sociological Review, 75(2), 273–302.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Breen, R., & Salazar, L. (2011). Educational assortative mating and earnings inequality in the United States. American Journal of Sociology, 117, 808–843.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Carter, A. C., Brandon, K. O., & Goldman, M. S. (2010). The college and noncollege experience: A review of the factors that influence drinking behavior in young adulthood. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 71, 742–750.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chen, P., & Jacobson, K. C. (2013). Longitudinal relationships between college education and patterns of heavy drinking: A comparison between Caucasians and African-Americans. Journal of Adolescent Health, 53, 356–362.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chen, C. M., Dufour, M. C., & Yi, H. (2004). Alcohol consumption among young adults ages 18–24 in the United States: Results from the 2001–2002 NESARC survey. Alcohol Research & Health, 28, 269–280.

    Google Scholar 

  • Côté, J. E., & Allahar, A. (2011). Lowering higher education: The rise of corporate universities and the fall of liberal education. Buffalo: University of Toronto Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Crosnoe, R. (2007). Gender, obesity, and education. Sociology of Education, 80, 241–260.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Crosnoe, R. (2011). Fitting in, standing out: Navigating the social challenges of high school to get an education. New York: Cambridge University Press.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Cutler, D. M., & Lleras-Muney, A. (2010). Understanding differences in health behaviors by education. Journal of Health Economics, 29(1), 1–28. doi:10.1016/j.jhealeco.2009.10.003.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Day, J. C., & Newburger, E. C. (2002). The big payoff: educational attainment and synthetic estimates of work-life earnings (Current population reports pp. 23–210). Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau U.S. Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dupre, M. E. (2007). Educational differences in age-related patterns of disease: Reconsidering the cumulative disadvantage and age-as-leveler hypotheses. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 48, 1–15.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Eaton, D. K., Kann, L., Okoro, C. A., & Collins, J. (2007). Selected health status indicators and behaviors of young adults, United States—2003. American Journal of Health Education, 38, 66–75.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Eide, E. R., & Showalter, M. H. (2011). Estimating the relation between health and education: What do we know and what do we need to know? Economics of Education Review, 30, 778–791.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Elder, G. H. (1998). The life course and human development. In R. M. Lerner (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology, volume 1: Theoretical models of human development (pp. 939–991). New York: Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  • Elder, G. H., Johnson, M. K., & Crosnoe, R. (2003). The emergence and development of life course theory. In J. T. Mortimer & M. J. Shanahan (Eds.), Handbook of the life course (pp. 3–19). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Farkas, G. (2011). Book review of academically adrift: Limited learning on college campuses, by R. Arum and J. Roksa. American Journal of Sociology, 117, 1000–1002.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fujiwara, T., & Kawachi, I. (2009). Is education causally related to better health? A twin fixed-effect study in the USA. International Journal of Epidemiology, 38, 1310–1322.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • George, L. K. (2003). Life course research: Achievements and potential. In J. T. Mortimer & M. J. Shanahan (Eds.), Handbook of the life course (pp. 671–680). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Glied, S., & Lleras-Muney, A. (2008). Technological innovation and inequality in health. Demography, 45(3), 741–761.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Goesling, B. (2007). The rising significance of education for health? Social Forces, 85, 1621–1644.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Goldin, C. D., & Katz, L. F. (2008). The race between technology and education. Cambridge: Harvard.

    Google Scholar 

  • Goldstein, J. R., & Kenney, C. T. (2001). Marriage delayed or marriage forgone? New cohort forecasts of first marriage for U.S. women. American Sociological Review, 66(4), 506–519. doi:10.2307/3088920.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Goyette, K. A. (2008). College for some to college for all: Social background, occupational expectations, and educational expectations over time. Social Science Research, 37(2), 461–484.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Grusky, D. B., Western, B., & Wimer, C. (2011). The great recession. New York: Russell Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  • Haas, S. A., & Fosse, N. (2008). Health and the educational attainment of adolescents: Evidence from the NLSY97. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 49(2), 178–192.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hayward, M. D., & Gorman, B. K. (2004). The long arm of childhood: The influence of early-life social conditions on men’s mortality. Demography, 41, 87–107.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Herd, P. (2006). Do functional health inequalities decrease in old age? Educational status and functional decline among the 1931–1941 birth cohort. Research on Aging, 28, 375–392.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Herd, P. (2010). Education and health in late-life among high school graduates: Cognitive versus psychological aspects of human capital. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 51(4), 478–496.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Herd, P., Goesling, B., & House, J. S. (2007). Socioeconomic position and health: The differential effects of education versus income on the onset versus progression of health problems. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 48, 223–238.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • House, J. S., Lepkowski, J. M., Kinney, A. M., Mero, R. P., Kessler, R. C., & Herzog, A. R. (1994). The social stratification of aging and health. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 35, 213–234.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hout, M. (2012). Social and economic returns to college education in the United States. Annual Review of Sociology, 28, 327–400.

    Google Scholar 

  • Institute of Medicine. (2012). How far have we come in reducing health disparities?: Progress since 2000: Workshop summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Institute of Medicine. (2014). Investing in the health and well-being of young adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jackson, M. I. (2009). Understanding links between adolescent health and educational attainment. Demography, 46, 671–694.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Johnston, L. D., O’Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., Schulenberg, J. E., & Miech, R. A. (2014a). Monitoring the future national survey results on drug use, 1975–2013: Volume I, secondary school students. Ann Arbor: Institute for Social Research, The University of Michigan.

    Google Scholar 

  • Johnston, L. D., O’Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., Schulenberg, J. E., & Miech, R. A. (2014b). Monitoring the future national survey results on drug use, 1975–2013: Volume 2, college students and adults ages 19–55. Ann Arbor: Institute for Social Research, The University of Michigan.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kalleberg, A. L. (2011). Good jobs, bad jobs: The rise of polarized and precarious employment systems in the United States, 1970s to 2000s. New York: Russell Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lanza, S. T., & Collins, L. M. (2006). A mixture model of discontinuous development in heavy drinking from ages 18 to 30: The role of college enrollment. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 67(4), 552–561.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lauderdale, D. S. (2001). Education and survival: Birth cohort, period, and age effects. Demography, 36(4), 551–561.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Leigh, J. P., & Dhir, R. (1997). Schooling and frailty among seniors. Economics of Education Review, 16, 45–57.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Link, B. G., & Phelan, J. C. (1995). Social conditions as fundamental causes of disease. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 35 (Extra Issue), 80–94.

    Google Scholar 

  • Link, B. G., Phelan, J. C., Miech, R., & Westin, E. L. (2008). The resources that matter: Fundamental social causes of health disparities and the challenge of intelligence. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 49, 72–91.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Liu, S. Y., Buka, S. L., Linkletter, C. D., Kawachi, I., Kubzansky, L., & Loucks, E. B. (2011). The association between blood pressure and years of schooling versus educational credentials: Test of the sheepskin effect. Annals of Epidemiology, 21, 128–138.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lynch, S. M. (2003). Cohort and life course patterns in the relationship between education and health: A hierarchical approach. Demography, 40(2), 309–331.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Martin, S. P. (n.d.). Growing evidence for a ‘divorce divide’? Education and marital rates in the U.S. since the 1970s (Working Paper). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

    Google Scholar 

  • Masters, R. K., Hummer, R. A., & Powers, D. A. (2012). Educational differences in U.S. adult mortality: A cohort perspective. American Sociological Review, 77(4), 548–572.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • McLanahan, S. (2004). Diverging destinies: How children fare under the second demographic transition. Demography, 41, 607–627.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Miech, R., Shanahan, M. J., Boardman, J., & Bauldry, S. (2015). The sequencing of a college degree during the transition to adulthood: Implications for obesity. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 56(2), 281–95.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mirowsky, J., & Ross, C. E. (2003). Education, social status, and health. Hawthorne: Aldine de Gruyter.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mirowsky, J., & Ross, C. E. (2005). Education, cumulative advantage, and health. Ageing International, 30, 27–62.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mirowsky, J., & Ross, C. E. (2008). Education and self-rated health: Cumulative advantage and its rising importance. Research on Aging, 30, 93–122.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Montez, J. K., Hummer, R. A., Hayward, M. D., Woo, H., & Rogers, R. G. (2011). Trends in the educational gradient of U.S. adult mortality from 1986 through 2006 by race, gender and age group. Research on Aging, 33, 145–171.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Montez, J. K., Hummer, R. A., & Hayward, M. D. (2012). Educational attainment and adult mortality in the United States: A systematic analysis of functional form. Demography, 49, 315–336.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Palloni, A. (2006). Reproducing inequalities: Luck, wallets, and the enduring effects of childhood health. Demography, 43, 587–615.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pampel, F. C., Krueger, P. M., & Denney, J. T. (2010). Socioeconomic disparities in health behaviors. Annual Review of Sociology, 36, 349–370.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pascarella, E. T., & Terenzini, P. T. (2005). How college affects students: Volume 2. A third decade of research. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.

    Google Scholar 

  • Patrick, M. E., Wightman, P., Schoeni, R. F., & Schulenberg, J. E. (2012). Socioeconomic status and substance use among young adults: A comparison across constructs and drugs. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 73, 772–782.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Patrick, M. E., Schulenberg, J. E., & O’Malley, P. M. (2013). High school substance use as a predictor of college attendance, completion, and dropout: a national multi-cohort longitudinal study. Youth & Society. NIHMSID528548. doi:10.1177/0044118x13508961

    Google Scholar 

  • Professor X. (2011). In the basement of the Ivory Tower: Confessions of an accidental academic. New York: Penguin.

    Google Scholar 

  • Qui, H., Bures, R., & Shehan, C. L. (2012). The inconsistent mediating effects of psychosocial work characteristics on the education-health relationship. Social Science & Medicine, 75, 1539–1546.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rosenbaum, J. E. (2011). The complexities of college for all: Beyond fairy-tale dreams. Sociology of Education, 84(2), 113–117.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rosenbaum, J. (2012). Degrees of health disparities: Health status disparities between young adults with high school diplomas, sub-Baccalaureate degrees, and Baccalaureate degrees. Health Services and Outcomes Research Methodology, 12(2), 156–168.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ross, C. E., & Mirowsky, J. (1999). Refining the association between education and health: The effects of quantity, credential, and selectivity. Demography, 36, 445–460.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ross, C. E., & Mirowsky, J. (2006). Sex differences in the effect of education on depression: Resource multiplication or resource substitution. Social Science & Medicine, 63, 1400–1413.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ross, C. E., & Mirowsky, J. (2010a). Why education is the key to socioeconomic differentials in health. In C. E. Bird, P. Conrad, A. M. Fremont, & S. Timmermans (Eds.), The handbook of medical sociology. Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ross, C. E., & Mirowsky, J. (2010b). Gender and the health benefits of education. The Sociological Quarterly, 51, 1–19.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ross, C. E., & Mirowsky, J. (2011). The interaction of personal and parental education on health. Social Science & Medicine, 72, 521–599.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ross, C. E., & Wu, C. (1995). The links between education and health. American Sociological Review, 60, 719–745.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ross, C. E., Masters, R., & Hummer, R. A. (2012). Education and the gender gaps in health and mortality. Demography, 49, 1157–1183.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schafer, M. H., Wilkinson, L., & Ferraro, K. (2013). Childhood (mis)fortune, educational attainment, and adult health: Contingent benefits of a college degree. Social Forces, 93, 1007–1034.

    Google Scholar 

  • Scharoun-Lee, M., Gordon-Larsen, P., Adair, L. S., Popkin, B. M., Kaufmann, J. S., & Suchindran, C. M. (2011). Intergenerational profiles of socioeconomic disadvantage and obesity during the transition to adulthood. Demography, 48, 625–651.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schnittker, J. (2004). Education and the changing shape of the income gradient in health. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 45, 286–305.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schulenberg, J. E. (2006). Understanding the multiple contexts of adolescent risky behavior and positive development: Advances and future directions. Applied Developmental Science, 10, 107–113.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schulenberg, J. E., & Maggs, J. L. (2002). A developmental perspective on alcohol use and heavy drinking during adolescence and the transition to young adulthood. Journal of Studies on Alcohol. Supplement, 14, 54–70.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schulenberg, J. E., & Patrick, M. E. (2012). Historical and developmental patterns of alcohol and drug use among college students: Framing the problem. In H. R. White & D. Rabiner (Eds.), College drinking and drug use (pp. 13–35). New York: Guilford.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schulenberg, J., O’Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., & Johnston, L. D. (2005). Early adult transitions and their relation to well-being and substance use. In R. A. Settersten, F. F. Furstenberg, & R. G. Rumbaut (Eds.), On the frontier of adulthood: Theory, research, and public policy (pp. 417–453). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Siennick, S. E., & Staff, J. (2008). Explaining the educational deficits of delinquent youths. Criminology, 46, 609–636.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Snyder, T. D., & Dillow, S. A. (2012). Digest of education statistics 2011 (NCES 2012–001). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.

    Google Scholar 

  • Staff, J., Schulenberg, J. E., Maslowsky, J., Bachman, J. G., O’Malley, P. M., Maggs, J. L., & Johnston, L. D. (2010). Substance use changes and social role transitions: Proximal developmental effects on ongoing trajectories from late adolescence through early adulthood. Development and Psychopathology, 22, 917–932.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Thoits, P. A. (1995). Stress, coping, and social support processes: Where are we? What next? Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 35, 53–79.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Thoits, P. A. (2011). Mechanisms linking social ties and support to physical and mental health. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 52, 145–161.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Vuolo, M., Staff, J., & Mortimer, J. T. (2012). Weathering the great recession: Psychological and behavioral trajectories in the transition from school to work. Developmental Psychology, 48, 1759–1773.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wheaton, B., & Clarke, P. (2003). Space meets time: Integrating temporal and contextual influences on mental health in early adulthood. American Sociological Review, 68, 680–706.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • White, H., McMorris, B. J., Catalano, R. F., Fleming, C. B., Haggerty, K. P., & Abbott, R. D. (2006). Increases in alcohol and marijuana use during the transition out of high school into emerging adulthood: The effects of leaving home, going to college, and high school protective factors. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 67, 810–822.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Woolf, S. H., & Aron, L. (2013). U.S. health in international perspective: Shorter lives, poorer health. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Yang, Y. (2008). Social inequalities in happiness in the United States, 1972–2004: An age-period-cohort analysis. American Sociological Review, 73, 204–226.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zajacova, A., Rogers, R. G., & Johnson-Lawrence, V. (2012). Glitch in the gradient: Additional education does not uniformly equal better health. Social Science & Medicine, 75(11), 2007–2012. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2012.07.036.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zheng, H., Yang, Y., & Land, K. C. (2011). Variance function regression in hierarchical age-period-cohort models: Applications to the study of self-reported health. American Sociological Review, 76(6), 955–983.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Monica Kirkpatrick Johnson .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2016 Springer International Publishing Switzerland

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Kirkpatrick Johnson, M., Staff, J., Schulenberg, J.E., Patrick, M.E. (2016). Living Healthier and Longer: A Life Course Perspective on Education and Health. In: Shanahan, M., Mortimer, J., Kirkpatrick Johnson, M. (eds) Handbook of the Life Course. Handbooks of Sociology and Social Research. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-20880-0_17

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-20880-0_17

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-319-20879-4

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-319-20880-0

  • eBook Packages: Social SciencesSocial Sciences (R0)

Publish with us

Policies and ethics