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Nomograms

  • David Jiang
  • Jennifer Tash AngerEmail author
Chapter
  • 621 Downloads

Abstract

A pressure-flow nomogram is a useful graphic and computational tool that aids in the proper identification and differentiation of those who have bladder outlet problems, bladder contraction disorders or a combination of both. Nomograms allow us to diagnose bladder outlet obstruction in a reproducible manner by using concrete inputs obtained from urodynamic studies. The Abrams-Griffiths, Schäfer, ICS, and Blaivas-Groutz nomograms are the products of sophisticated analyses of normal and aberrant voiding cycles in both men and women. In addition to their historical importance, the nomograms are useful objective tools to classify obstruction on urodynamic studies. Nomograms serve as good diagnostic tools, but, as with any instrument, clinical judgment should be used for proper diagnosis and treatment planning for the individual patient.

Keywords

Nomogram Pressure flow Outlet obstruction Detrusor Obstruction 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of UrologyOregon Health and Science UniversityPortlandUSA
  2. 2.Division of Urology, Department of SurgeryCedars-Sinai Medical CenterBeverly HillsUSA

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