• David Jiang
  • Jennifer Tash AngerEmail author


A pressure-flow nomogram is a useful graphic and computational tool that aids in the proper identification and differentiation of those who have bladder outlet problems, bladder contraction disorders or a combination of both. Nomograms allow us to diagnose bladder outlet obstruction in a reproducible manner by using concrete inputs obtained from urodynamic studies. The Abrams-Griffiths, Schäfer, ICS, and Blaivas-Groutz nomograms are the products of sophisticated analyses of normal and aberrant voiding cycles in both men and women. In addition to their historical importance, the nomograms are useful objective tools to classify obstruction on urodynamic studies. Nomograms serve as good diagnostic tools, but, as with any instrument, clinical judgment should be used for proper diagnosis and treatment planning for the individual patient.


Nomogram Pressure flow Outlet obstruction Detrusor Obstruction 


  1. 1.
    Abrams P, Griffiths DJ. The assessment of prostatic obstruction from urodynamic measurement and from residual urine. Br J Urol. 1979;51:129–34.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Jensen KM, Jorgensen JB, Mogensen P. Urodynamics in prostatism. II. Prognostic value of pressure-flow study combined with stop-flow test. Scand J Urol Nephrol Suppl. 1988;114:72–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rollema HJ, Magstrigt RV. Improved indication and follow-up in transurethral resection of the prostate using the computer program CLIM: a prospective study. J Urol. 1992;148:111–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Schäfer W. Principle and clinical application of advanced urodynamic analysis of voiding function. Urol Clin North Am. 1990;17:553–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Griffiths D, Hofner K, van Magstrigt R, et al. Standardization of terminology of lower urinary tract function: pressure-flow studies of voiding, urethral resistance and urethral obstruction. NeurourolUrodyn. 1997;16:1–18.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Blaivas JG, Groutz A. Bladder outlet obstruction nomogram for women with lower urinary tract symptomatology. NeurourolUrodyn. 2000;19:553–64.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Groutz A, Blaivas JG, Sassone AM. Detrusor pressure-uroflow studies in women: the effect of a 7F transurethral catheter. J Urol. 2000;164:109–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Massolt ET, Groen J, Vierhout ME. Application of the Blaivas-Groutz outlet obstruction nomogram in women with urinary incontinence. NeurourolUrodyn. 2005;24:237–42.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of UrologyOregon Health and Science UniversityPortlandUSA
  2. 2.Division of Urology, Department of SurgeryCedars-Sinai Medical CenterBeverly HillsUSA

Personalised recommendations