Microscale Technologies for Engineering Complex Tissue Structures

  • Charles W. Peak
  • Lauren Cross
  • Ankur Singh
  • Akhilesh K. GaharwarEmail author


Engineered tissue scaffolds aim to reproduce the body’s architectural and geometrical intricacies, including vital cell–cell interactions. These scaffolds serve as synthetic extracellular matrices that organize the embedded cells into a three-dimensional (3D) architecture and present them with stimuli for their growth and maturation. Tissue engineering techniques have been applied to many types of tissues; however, numerous challenges regarding their development still remain. These challenges include our inability to generate a functional vasculature that can supply the tissue with nutrients and oxygen and the inability to mimic the complex cell–microenvironmental interactions that regulate the formation of a functional tissue. This chapter focuses on the most recent developments in the field of microfabrication technologies to design vascularized tissue constructs. In particular, we discuss emerging bottom-up approaches to design complex macroscale structures, examine their current limitations, and conclude with future directions in designing more complex tissue architecture.


Microscale technologies Tissue engineering Vascularized tissues Bioprinting Complex tissues 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Charles W. Peak
    • 1
  • Lauren Cross
    • 1
  • Ankur Singh
    • 2
  • Akhilesh K. Gaharwar
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Biomedical EngineeringTexas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA
  2. 2.Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace EngineeringCornell UniversityIthacaUSA
  3. 3.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringTexas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA

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