Universal Design (UD) Guidelines for Interactive Mobile Voting Interfaces for Older Adults

  • Ljilja Ruzic KascakEmail author
  • Seunghyun “Tina” Lee
  • Elaine Yilin Liu
  • Jon A. Sanford
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9178)


Current mobile interfaces have numerous usability problems, especially when used by older adults, population of users diverse in ranges and combinations of dis(abilities). However, user interfaces need to be usable by all users, including older adults and disabled people. Universal design (UD), Design for Aging (DfA), and Universal Usability (UU) consider designing systems and interfaces usable by all people, to the greatest extent possible. Set of more inclusive UD guidelines emerged from this integration of the three approaches with mobile design guidelines in order to address usability of user interfaces by diverse population of older adults. An example of an application of the inclusive UD guidelines was universally designed interactive voting interface, EZ Ballot, designed to improve usability of voting systems for older adults. This paper presents the results of the usability testing of the voting system with young and older adults, and reports equal usability of the ballot for both age groups.


Design for ageing User interface adaptation for universal access Design guidelines Older adults Universal design Usability 


  1. 1.
    Jastrzembski, T.S., Charness, N.: What older adults can teach us about designing better ballots. Ergon. Des. Q. Hum. Factors Appl. 15(4), 6–11 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Siek, K.A., Rogers, Y., Connelly, K.H.: Fat finger worries: how older and younger users physically interact with PDAs. In: Costabile, M.F., Paternó, F. (eds.) INTERACT 2005. LNCS, vol. 3585, pp. 267–280. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hawthorn, D.: Possible implications of aging for interface designers. Interact. Comput. 12(5), 507–528 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mace, R.: Universal Design: Housing for the Lifespan of all People. US Department of Housing and Urban Affairs, Washington DC (1988)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Law, C.M., et al.: A systematic examination of universal design resources: part 1, heuristic evaluation. Univ. Access Inf. Soc. 7(1–2), 31–54 (2008)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sanford, J.A.: Universal Design as a Rehabilitation Strategy: Design for the Ages. Springer Publishing Company, New York (2012)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Falls Among Older Adults: An Overview. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2013 (cited 2014 April 21).
  8. 8.
    Nichols, T.A., Rogers, W.A., Fisk, A.D.: Design for aging. In: Salvendy, G. (ed.) Handbook of Human Factors and Ergonomics, 3rd edn, pp. 1418–1445. Wiley, Hoboken (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Zajicek, M.: Interface design for older adults. In: Proceedings of the 2001 EC/NSF Workshop on Universal Accessibility of Ubiquitous Computing: Providing for the Elderly. ACM (2001)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Meiselwitz, G., Wentz, B., Lazar, J.: Universal Usability: Past, Present, and Future. Now Publishers Inc (2010)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Shneiderman, B.: Designing for fun: how can we design user interfaces to be more fun? Interactions 11(5), 48–50 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gong, J., Tarasewich, P.: Guidelines for handheld mobile device interface design. In: Proceedings of DSI 2004 Annual Meeting. Citeseer (2004)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bederson, B.B., et al.: Electronic voting system usability issues. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. ACM (2003)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kascak, L., Rébola, C.B., Sanford, J.: Integrating Universal Design (UD) principles and mobile design guidelines to improve design of mobile health applications for older adults. In: 2014 IEEE International Conference on Healthcare Informatics (ICHI). IEEE (2014)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gaver, W., et al.: The photostroller: supporting diverse care home residents in engaging with the world. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. ACM (2011)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kascak, L., et al.: Icon design for user interface of remote patient monitoring mobile devices. In: Proceedings of the 31st ACM International Conference on Design of Communication. ACM (2013)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kascak, L., et al.: Icon design to improve communication of health information to older adults. Commun. Des. Q. Rev. 2(1), 6–32 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pruitt, J., Adlin, T.: The Persona Lifecycle: Keeping People in Mind Throughout Product Design. Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisco (2010)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kurniawan, S., Zaphiris, P.: Research-derived web design guidelines for older people. In: Proceedings of the 7th International ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Computers and Accessibility. ACM (2005)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Zaphiris, P., Kurniawan, S., Ghiawadwala, M.: A systematic approach to the development of research-based web design guidelines for older people. Univ. Access Inf. Soc. 6(1), 59–75 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hart, T., Chaparro, B.S., Halcomb, C.G.: Evaluating websites for older adults: adherence to ‘senior-friendly’guidelines and end-user performance. Behav. Inf. Technol. 27(3), 191–199 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Redish, J., Chisnell, D.: Designing web sites for older adults: A review of recent research. vol. 9, p. 2008. Accessed June 2004Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Fisk, A.D., et al.: Designing for Older Adults: Principles and Creative Human Factors Approaches. CRC Press, Boca Raton (2012)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Parhi, P., Karlson, A.K., Bederson, B.B.: Target size study for one-handed thumb use on small touchscreen devices. In: Proceedings of the 8th Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services. ACM (2006)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Chisnell, D., Redish, J.: Designing web sites for older adults: Expert review of usability for older adults at 50 web sites. In: AARP, vol. 1, pp. 1–60 (2005)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Shneiderman, B.: Universal usability. Commun. ACM 43(5), 84–91 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lee, S., et al.: EZ ballot with multimodal inputs and outputs. In: Proceedings of the 14th International ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Computers and Accessibility, pp. 215–216. ACM, Boulder (2012)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lee, S., et al.: EZ ballot with multimodal inputs and outputs. In: Proceedings of the 14th International ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Computers and Accessibility. ACM (2012)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ljilja Ruzic Kascak
    • 1
    Email author
  • Seunghyun “Tina” Lee
    • 1
  • Elaine Yilin Liu
    • 1
  • Jon A. Sanford
    • 1
  1. 1.The Center for Assistive Technology and Environmental Access CATEAGeorgia Institute of Technology AtlantaAtlantaUSA

Personalised recommendations