Cross Entropy as a Measure of Musical Contrast
We present a preliminary study of using the information theoretic concept of cross entropy to measure musical contrast in a symbolic context, with a focus on melody. We measure cross entropy using the Information Dynamics Of Music (IDyOM) framework. Whilst our long term aim is to understand the use of contrast in sonata form, in this paper we take a more general perspective and look at a broad spread of Western art music of the common practice era. Our results suggest that cross entropy has a useful role as an objective measure of contrast, but that a fuller picture will require more work.
KeywordsContrast Similarity Cross entropy N gram model Markov model
We are grateful for discussions and advice to Byron Dueck, Tom Collins, Alan Marsden, Marcus Pearce, Raymond Whorley, Geraint Wiggins, and Alistair Willis.
- 2.Collins T., Böck S., Krebs, F., Widmer, G.: Bridging the audio-symbolic gap: the discovery of repeated note content directly from polyphonic music audio. In: Proceedings of the Audio Engineering Society’s 53rd Conference on Semantic Audio, London, p. 12 (2014)Google Scholar
- 3.Collins, T., Laney, R., Willis, A., Garthwaite, P.H.: Developing and evaluating computational models of musical style. In: Jin, Y. (ed.) Artificial Intelligence for Engineering Design, Analysis and Manufacturing, vol. 9, p. 28. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1995)Google Scholar
- 7.Online Chopin Variorum Edition. http://www.ocve.org.uk/index.html
- 8.Pearce, M.: The construction and evaluation of statistical models of melodic structure in music perception and composition, M.T. Ph.D. thesis. City University London, Pearce (2005)Google Scholar
- 12.Whorley, R.: The construction and evaluation of statistical models of melody and harmony. Whorley, R.P. Ph.D. thesis. Goldsmiths, University of London (2013)Google Scholar