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Genetic Basis of Alcoholic and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

  • Silvia SookoianEmail author
  • Carlos Jose Pirola

Abstract

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD) are both leading causes of nonviral chronic liver diseases, and the prevalence of these two clinical disorders is constantly growing worldwide.

NAFLD and AFLD share similar natural history, histologic features, and major molecular mechanisms, leading to inflammation and increased fibrogenesis. In this chapter, we revise current knowledge and recent insights regarding the genetic basis of NAFLD and AFLD in an integrative approach to understand the role of the genetic component in the susceptibility of abnormal liver fat accumulation and the progression of liver disease.

Keywords

Nonalcoholic fatty liver NAFLD NASH Alcoholic fatty liver disease AFLD Gene Gene variants SNP PNPLA3 Genetics Metabolic syndrome Insulin resistance Systems biology 

Abbreviations

AFLD

Alcoholic fatty liver disease

ALT

Alanine aminotransferase

GGT

Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase

GWAS

Genome-wide association studies

MetSyn

Metabolic syndrome

miRNA

microRNA

NAFLD

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

NASH

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

PNPLA3

Patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3

SNP

Single-nucleotide polymorphism

TAG

Triacylglycerol

Notes

Funding Support

This study was supported partially by grants PICT 2010-0441 and PICT 2012-0159 (Agencia Nacional de Promoción Científica y Tecnológica) and UBACYT CM04 (Universidad de Buenos Aires).

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Clinical and Molecular HepatologyInstitute of Medical Research A Lanari-IDIM, University of Buenos Aires—National Scientific and Technical Research Council (CONICET)Buenos AiresArgentina
  2. 2.Department of Molecular Genetics and Biology of Complex DiseasesInstitute of Medical Research A Lanari-IDIM, University of Buenos Aires—National Scientific and Technical Research Council (CONICET)Buenos AiresArgentina

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