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Global Epidemiology and Risk Factors for Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

  • Abhijit Chowdhury
  • Zobair M. YounossiEmail author

Abstract

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is rapidly becoming the most common cause of chronic liver disease in North America and European countries [Wong et al., Gut 59(7):969–974, 2010; Argo and Caldwell, Clin Liver Dis 13(4):11–531, 2009; Vernon et al., Aliment Pharmacol Ther 34(3):274-85, 2011; Lazo and Clark, Semin Liver Dis 28: 339–350, 2008; Caldwell and Argo, Dig Dis 28: 162–168, 2010; Adams et al. Gastroenterology 129: 113-121, 2005; Ogden et al., JAMA 311(8):806-814, 2014; Roberts et al., Europe Report for United European Gastroenterology, 2014; LaBrecque et al., Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis, 2012; Paredes et al., Clin Liver Dis 16: 397-419, 2012; European Union Commission Final Report Summary - FLIP (Fatty liver: Inhibition of Progression). Last updated on 2014-08-29]. Furthermore, NAFLD is now considered an important emerging liver disease in the Asian and South American countries [LaBrecque et al., Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis, 2012]. Due to the increasing prevalence of NAFLD and its complications (NAFLD-related HCC, cirrhosis, and NAFLD-related liver transplantation), NAFLD has increasingly become a major public health issue for a number of countries [Flegal et al., J Am Med Assoc 307(5):491–497, 2012; Matteoni et al., Gastroenterology 116(6):1413–1419, 1999; Welzel et al., Hepatology 54: 463–471, 2011; Rosmorduc and Fartoux, Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol 36: 202-208, 2012; Borena et al., Int J Cancer 131: 193-200, 2012; Charlton et al., Gastroenterology 141: 1249-1253, 2011; Karlas et al., Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 27(2):195-208, 2013; Yilmaz, Ailment Pharmacol Ther 36:345–352, 2012; Moore, Proc Nutr Soc 69(2):211–220, 2010; Sanyal et al., Hepatology 43:682–689, 2006; Ascha et al. Hepatology 51:1972–1978, 2010; Yasui et al., Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 9:428–433, 2011; Baffy et al., J Hepatol 56: 1384–1391, 2012; Rafiq et al., Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 7(2):234–238, 2009; Zezos and Renner, World J Gastroenterol 20(42): 15532–15538, 2014]. Although currently there are no guidelines for screening the general population for NAFLD, patients who are at high risk for NAFLD (presence of type 2 diabetes, obesity, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, or metabolic syndrome) should be carefully assessed, especially for the presence of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) or the progressive subtype of NAFLD [Roberts et al., Europe Report for United European Gastroenterology, 2014; LaBrecque et al., Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis, 2012; Ratziu et al., J Hepatol 53(2):372–384, 2010; Chalasani et al., Hepatology 55(6): 2005–2013, 2012; Brunt et al., Hepatology 53(3):810–820, 2011]. This is important not only for potential management of these patients but also for prognosis and the progressive nature of NASH. Although emerging data suggest that NAFLD is common in South America, as well as part of Africa and Australia, the following chapter will focus on the prevalence, incidence, and risk factors for NAFLD in North America, Europe, and Asia. Since there is a dedicated chapter for NAFLD in children, our discussion will focus on NAFLD in adults.

Keywords

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis Metabolic syndrome Hepatocellular carcinoma Cardiovascular disease 

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© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of HepatologySchool of Digestive and Liver Diseases, Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education and ResearchKolkataIndia
  2. 2.Department of MedicineInova Fairfax Hospital, Center for Liver DiseasesFalls ChurchUSA
  3. 3.Betty and Guy Beatty Center for Integrated Research, Claude Moore Health Education and Research BuildingFalls ChurchUSA

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