ROS–RNS–Phytohormones Network in Root Response Strategy

  • Urszula KrasuskaEmail author
  • Agnieszka Gniazdowska


Roots are considered as a “brain” of a plant, with apical meristems pointed as command centers of an organism. Besides nutrient and water uptake, roots act as organs decisive and responsive for environmental factors. Dynamic reorganization of root growth and architecture in reaction to various stressors is commonly observed. Self-recognition and plants’ ability to identify neighbors are manifested by root movement. Root physiology is strictly controlled by diverse agents including phytohormones, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). ROS and RNS as molecules of bimodal function are known as cellular messengers crucial for regulation of fundamental physiological processes. Most of them depend on auxins; thus, auxin–ROS–RNS cross talk seems to be a typical pattern in root response to different stimuli. This chapter presents information on ROS and RNS contribution in regulation of root movement, growth, and development, described on the basis of auxin and abscisic acid action.


Auxin Growth Nitric oxide Root apex Root movement 



The manuscript was prepared during realization of grant no. 2014/13/B/NZ9/02074 financed by National Science Centre, Poland.


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© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Plant PhysiologyWarsaw University of Life Sciences-SGGWWarsawPoland

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