Modulation of the Ascorbate–Glutathione Cycle Antioxidant Capacity by Posttranslational Modifications Mediated by Nitric Oxide in Abiotic Stress Situations

  • J. C. Begara-Morales
  • B. Sánchez-Calvo
  • M. Chaki
  • R. Valderrama
  • C. Mata-Pérez
  • M. N. Padilla
  • F. J. Corpas
  • J. B. BarrosoEmail author


Environmental stresses cause a rapid burst of second messengers belonging to reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species, mainly hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide (NO), respectively. H2O2 can act as a signal molecule or become toxic at high levels. Plants have developed different antioxidant tools, such as the ascorbate–glutathione (Asa–GSH) cycle, a key antioxidant system involved in the finely tuned regulation of H2O2 in cells, in order to control H2O2 overproduction. In recent years, a growing body of evidence points to the existence of a link between NO and physiological and stress responses in plants. NO activity is mainly conveyed through posttranslational modifications (PTMs) such as S-nitrosylation and/or tyrosine nitration. Over the last 10 years, the number of S-nitrosylated and nitrated proteins subjected to physiological and a stress condition has been observed to increase significantly in higher plants, suggesting that NO-PTMs are involved in plant physiology. Emerging evidence shows that ROS and NO interact during plant responses to (a)biotic stress, and proteins linked to ROS metabolism have been reported to be regulated by NO-related PTMs. Furthermore, using proteomic analytical techniques, enzymes involved in the Asa–GSH cycle have been identified as NO targets. However, little information exists on the specific impact of NO-PTMs on the structure and activity of these antioxidant enzymes. In this chapter, we will discuss recent findings concerning the regulation of the Asa–GSH cycle antioxidant capacity by NO-PTMs, particularly in relation to the role played by the NO target residues identified under stress conditions.


Ascorbate–glutathione cycle Nitric oxide Tyrosine nitration S-nitrosylation Abiotic stress 



This study was supported by an ERDF grant co-financed by the Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (projects BIO2012-33904 and RECUPERA2020) and the Junta de Andalucía (groups BIO286 and BIO192) in Spain. J. Begara-Morales would like to thank the Ministry of Science and Innovation for funding the Ph.D. fellowship (F.P.U.). LC/MS/MS analyses were carried out at the Laboratorio de Proteómica LP-CSIC/UAB, a member of ProteoRed network.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. C. Begara-Morales
    • 1
  • B. Sánchez-Calvo
    • 1
  • M. Chaki
    • 1
  • R. Valderrama
    • 1
  • C. Mata-Pérez
    • 1
  • M. N. Padilla
    • 1
  • F. J. Corpas
    • 2
  • J. B. Barroso
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Biochemistry and Cell Signaling in Nitric Oxide Group, Department of Experimental Biology, Center for Advanced Studies in Olive Grove and Olive Oils, Faculty of Experimental SciencesUniversity of JaénJaénSpain
  2. 2.Antioxidants, Free Radicals and Nitric Oxide in Biotechnology, Food and Agriculture Group, Department of Biochemistry, Cell and Molecular Biology of PlantsEstación Experimental del Zaidín, CSICGranadaSpain

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