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Production Sites of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in Organelles from Plant Cells

  • Francisco J. CorpasEmail author
  • Dharmendra K. Gupta
  • José M. PalmaEmail author

Abstract

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been considered for a long time as undesirable by-product of the cellular metabolism, but recently the role of ROS in molecular signaling processes has been reported. Consequently, the cell must keep a fragile equilibrium between ROS production and the antioxidant defenses that protect cells in vivo against potential damages (oxidative stress) and, alternatively, allow the inter- and intra-cell communications. This equilibrium may become disturbed under different array of adverse conditions by an excessive generation of ROS or by an impaired antioxidant defenses. Plant cells have a compartmentalization of ROS production in the different organelles including chloroplasts, mitochondria, or peroxisomes, and they also have a complex battery of antioxidant enzymes usually close to the site of ROS production. Cell compartmentalization has been demonstrated to be an additional mechanism of cellular ROS modulation for signaling purposes. This chapter will provide a general overview of the main system of ROS production/regulation in plant cells.

Keywords

Reactive oxygen species Chloroplasts Mitochondria Peroxisomes 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Work in our laboratories is supported by ERDF grants co-financed by the Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (projects AGL2011-26044, BIO2012-33904) and the Junta de Andalucía (group BIO192) in Spain.

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© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Group of Antioxidants, Free Radicals and Nitric Oxide in Biotechnology, Food and Agriculture, Department of Biochemistry, Cell and Molecular Biology of PlantsEstación Experimental del Zaidín, CSICGranadaSpain
  2. 2.Institut für Radioökologie und Strahlenschutz (IRS)Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Universität HannoverHannoverGermany

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