Advertisement

Word Translation Entropy: Evidence of Early Target Language Activation During Reading for Translation

  • Moritz SchaefferEmail author
  • Barbara Dragsted
  • Kristian Tangsgaard Hvelplund
  • Laura Winther Balling
  • Michael Carl
Part of the New Frontiers in Translation Studies book series (NFTS)

Abstract

This study reports on an investigation into the relationship between the number of translation alternatives for a single word and eye movements on the source text. In addition, the effect of word order differences between source and target text on eye movements on the source text is studied. In particular, the current study investigates the effect of these variables on early and late eye movement measures. Early eye movement measures are indicative of processes that are more automatic while late measures are more indicative of conscious processing. Most studies that found evidence of target language activation during source text reading in translation, i.e. co-activation of the two linguistic systems, employed late eye movement measures or reaction times. The current study therefore aims to investigate if and to what extent earlier eye movement measures in reading for translation show evidence of co-activation. Results show that the number of translation alternatives for a single word and differences between source and target text in terms of word order have an effect on very early and late eye movement measures. Results are interpreted in terms of semantic and structural cross-linguistic priming: items which have a similar word order in source and target texts are likely to have similar syntactic structures. These items are therefore more likely to prime structurally. Source items which have few translation alternatives are more likely to share a semantic representation and are hence more likely to prime semantically than items with more translation alternatives. Findings support the literal translation hypothesis.

Keywords

Co-activation Priming Translation Entropy Eye movements 

References

  1. Baayen, R. H. (2013). languageR: Data sets and functions with ‘Analyzing linguistic data: A practical introduction to statistics’. Available at: http://cran.r-project.org/package=languageR.
  2. Balling, L. W., & Carl, M. (2014). Production time across languages and tasks: A large-scale analysis using the CRITT translation process database. In J. W. Schwieter & A. Ferreira (Eds.), The development of translation competence: Theories and methodologies from psycholinguistics and cognitive science (pp. 239–268). Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.Google Scholar
  3. Balling, L. W., Hvelplund, K. T., & Sjørup, A. C. (2014). Evidence of parallel processing during translation. Meta, 59(2), 234–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bates, D., Maechler, M., Bolker, B., & Walker, S. (2014). {lme4}: Linear mixed-effects models using Eigen and S4. Available at http://cran.r-project.org/package=lme4.
  5. Bernolet, S., Hartsuiker, R. J., & Pickering, M. J. (2007). Shared syntactic representations in bilinguals: Evidence for the role of word-order repetition. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 33(5), 931–949.Google Scholar
  6. Bernolet, S., Hartsuiker, R. J., & Pickering, M. J. (2013). From language-specific to shared syntactic representations: The influence of second language proficiency on syntactic sharing in bilinguals. Cognition, 127(3), 287–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Boada, R., Sánchez-Casas, R., Gavilán, J. M., García-Albea, J. E., & Tokowicz, N. (2012). Effect of multiple translations and cognate status on translation recognition performance of balanced bilinguals. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 16(01), 183–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brysbaert, M., & New, B. (2009). Moving beyond Kučera and Francis: A critical evaluation of current word frequency norms and the introduction of a new and improved word frequency measure for American English. Behavior Research Methods, 41(4), 977–990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Carl, M. (2012). The CRITT TPR-DB 1.0: A database for empirical human translation process research. In AMTA 2012 workshop on post-editing technology and practice.Google Scholar
  10. Carl, M., & Dragsted, B. (2012). Inside the monitor model: Processes of default and challenged translation production. In Translation: Corpora, computation, cognition. Special issue on the crossroads between contrastive linguistics, translation studies and machine translation, 2(1), 127–145.Google Scholar
  11. Carl, M., & Schaeffer, M. (forthcoming). Literal translation and processes of post-editing. In: Translation in transition: Between cognition, computing and technology. Amsterdam: Benjamins.Google Scholar
  12. Chen, B., Jia, Y., Wang, Z., Dunlap, S., & Shin, J.-A. (2013). Is word-order similarity necessary for cross-linguistic structural priming? Second Language Research, 29(4), 375–389. doi: 10.1177/0267658313491962.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chesterman, A. (2011). Reflections on the literal translation hypothesis. In C. Alvstad, A. Hild, & E. Tiselius (Eds.), Methods and strategies of process research: integrative approaches in translation studies (pp. 23–35). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Clifton, C., Staub, A., & Rayner, K. (2007). Eye movements in reading words and sentences. In R. P. G. van Gompel, M. H. Fischer, W. S. Murray, & R. L. Hill (Eds.), Eye movements: A window on mind and brain (pp. 341–371). Amsterdam: Elsevier.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. De Groot, A. M. B. (1992). Determinants of word translation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 18(5), 1001–1018.Google Scholar
  16. Desmet, T., & Declercq, M. (2006). Cross-linguistic priming of syntactic hierarchical configuration information. Journal of Memory and Language, 54(4), 610–632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dijkstra, T., & van Heuven, W. J. B. (2002). The architecture of the bilingual word recognition system: From identification to decision. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 5(3), 175–197.Google Scholar
  18. Dragsted, B. (2012). Indicators of difficulty in translation – correlating product and process data. Across Languages and Cultures, 13(1), 81–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dragsted, B., & Carl, M. (2013). Towards a classification of translation styles based on eye-tracking and keylogging data. Journal of Writing Research, 5(1), 133–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Duñabeitia, J. A., Perea, M., & Carreiras, M. (2010). Masked translation priming effects with highly proficient simultaneous bilinguals. Experimental Psychology, 57(2), 98–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Eddington, C. M., & Tokowicz, N. (2013). Examining English–German translation ambiguity using primed translation recognition. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 16(02), 442–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ehrlich, S. F., & Rayner, K. (1981). Contextual effects on word perception and eye movements during reading. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 20(6), 641–655.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Englund Dimitrova, B. (2005). Expertise and explicitation in the translation process. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Finkbeiner, M., Forster, K., Nicol, J., & Nakamura, K. (2004). The role of polysemy in masked semantic and translation priming. Journal of Memory and Language, 51(1), 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gile, D. (1995). Basic concepts and models for interpreter and translator training. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Grosjean, F. (1997). The bilingual individual. Interpreting – International Journal of Research and Practice in Interpreting, 2, 163–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hartsuiker, R. J., Kolk, H. H. J., & Huiskamp, P. (1999). Priming word order in sentence production. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 52A(1), 129–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hartsuiker, R. J., Pickering, M. J., & Veltkamp, E. (2004). Is syntax separate or shared between languages? Cross-linguistic syntactic priming in Spanish-English bilinguals. Psychological Science, 15(6), 409–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hvelplund, K. T. (2011). Allocation of cognitive resources in translation: An eye-tracking and key-logging study. PhD thesis, Copenhagen Business School.Google Scholar
  30. Hvelplund, K. T. (2015). Four fundamental types of reading during translation. In A. L. Jakobsen & B. Mesa-Lao (Eds.), Translation in Transition. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
  31. Hyönä, J., & Olson, R. K. (1995). Eye fixation patterns among dyslexic and normal readers: effects of word length and word frequency. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 21(6), 1430–1440. doi: 10.1037/0278-7393.21.6.1430.Google Scholar
  32. Jakobsen, A. L. (2011). Tracking translators’ keystrokes and eye movements with Translog. In C. Alvstad, A. Hild, & E. Tiselius (Eds.), Methods and strategies of process research. Integrative approaches in translation studies (pp. 37–55). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
  33. Jakobsen, A. L., & Jensen, K. T. H. (2008). Eye movement behaviour across four different types of reading task. In S. Göpferich, A. L. Jakobsen, & I. M. Mees (Eds.), Looking at eyes. Eye-tracking studies of reading and translation processing (Vol. 36, pp. 103–124). Copenhagen: Samfundslitteratur.Google Scholar
  34. Just, M. A., & Carpenter, P. A. (1980). A theory of reading: From eye fixations to comprehension. Psychological Review, 87(4), 329–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kidd, E., Tennant, E., & Nitschke, S. (2014). Shared abstract representation of linguistic structure in bilingual sentence comprehension. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review. doi: 10.3758/s13423-014-0775-2.Google Scholar
  36. Krings, H. P. (1986). Was in den Köpfen von Übersetzern vorgeht: eine empirische Untersuchung zur Struktur des Übersetzungsprozesses an fortgeschrittenen Französischlernern. Tübingen: Günter Narr Verlag.Google Scholar
  37. Kuznetsova, A., Christensen, R. H. B., & Brockhoff, P. B. (2014). lmertest: Tests for random and fixed effects for linear mixed effect models (lmer Objects of lme4 Package). R package version 2.0-6. Available at http://www.cran.rproject.org/package=lmerTest/.
  38. Laxén, J., & Lavaur, J.-M. (2010). The role of semantics in translation recognition: Effects of number of translations, dominance of translations and semantic relatedness of multiple translations. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 13(02), 157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lederer, M. (1994). La traduction aujourd’hui. Le modèle interprétatif. Paris: Hachette.Google Scholar
  40. Loebell, H., & Bock, K. (2003). Structural priming across languages. Linguistics, 41(5), 791–824.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Macizo, P., & Bajo, M. (2006). Reading for understanding and reading for translation: Do they involve the same processes? Cognition, 99, 1–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Malmkjaer, K. (2005). Norms and nature in translation studies. Synaps, 16, 13–19.Google Scholar
  43. McConkie, G. W., & Yang, S.-N. (2003). How cognition affects eye movements during reading. In J. Hyönä, R. Radach, & H. Deubel (Eds.), The mind’s eye: Cognitive and applied aspects of eye movement research (pp. 413–427). Oxford: Elsevier.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. O’Brien, S. (2006). Eye-tracking and translation memory matches. Perspectives, 14(3), 185–205.Google Scholar
  45. R Development Core Team. (2014). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Available at: http://www.r-project.org/.Google Scholar
  46. Rayner, K. (1998). Eye movements in reading and information processing: 20 years of research. Psychological Bulletin, 124(3), 372–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Rayner, K. (2009). Eye movements and attention in reading, scene perception, and visual search. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 62(8), 1457–1506. doi: 10.1080/17470210902816461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ruiz, C., Paredes, P., Macizo, P., & Bajo, M. T. (2008). Activation of lexical and syntactic target language properties in translation. Acta Psychologica, 128, 490–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Rydning, A. F., & Lachaud, C. (2010). The reformulation challenge in translation. In G. M. Shreve & E. Angelone (Eds.), Translation and cognition (pp. 85–108), vi, 381 pp.Google Scholar
  50. Schaeffer, M. J., Paterson, K., McGowan, V. A., White, S. J., & Malmkjær K. (forthcoming). Reading for translation. In A. L. Jakobsen & B. Mesa-Lao (Eds.), Translation in Transition. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
  51. Schaeffer, M. J., & Carl, M. (2013). Shared representations and the translation process: A recursive model. Translation and Interpreting Studies, 8(2), 169–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Schoonbaert, S., Hartsuiker, R. J., & Pickering, M. J. (2007). The representation of lexical and syntactic information in bilinguals: Evidence from syntactic priming. Journal of Memory and Language, 56(2), 153–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Shin, J.-A., & Christianson, K. (2009). Syntactic processing in Korean-English bilingual production: Evidence from cross-linguistic structural priming. Cognition, 112(1), 175–180. doi: 10.1016/j.cognition.2009.03.011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Tokowicz, N., & Kroll, J. F. (2007). Number of meanings and concreteness: Consequences of ambiguity within and across languages. Language and Cognitive Processes, 22(5), 727–779.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Wu, Y. J., & Thierry, G. (2012). Unconscious translation during incidental foreign language processing. NeuroImage, 59(4), 3468–3473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Moritz Schaeffer
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Barbara Dragsted
    • 1
  • Kristian Tangsgaard Hvelplund
    • 3
  • Laura Winther Balling
    • 1
  • Michael Carl
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Research and Innovation in Translation and Translation Technology, Department of International Business CommunicationCopenhagen Business SchoolFrederiksbergDenmark
  2. 2.Institute for Language, Cognition and ComputationUniversity of EdinburghEdinburghUK
  3. 3.Department of English, Germanic and Romance StudiesUniversity of CopenhagenCopenhagenDenmark

Personalised recommendations