Measuring CO2 Emissions

  • N. F. Gray


In order to achieve carbon reduction targets we need to be able to accurately measure our greenhouse gas emissions. In this chapter we explore the concept of carbon footprints, how they are comprised and importantly how they can be reduced.


Carbon Footprint Smart Phone Fuel Efficiency Capita Emission Input Category 
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References and Further Reading

  1. British Standards Institute. (2006). Environmental management—Life cycle assessment—Principles and framework ISO 14040:2006. London, England: British Standards Institute. Retrieved from
  2. British Standards Institute. (2011). Specification for the assessment of the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of goods and services 2050:2011. London, England: British Standards Institute. Retrieved from
  3. British Standards Institute. (2012). Greenhouse gases. Specification with guidance at the organization level for quantification and reporting of greenhouse gas emissions and removals BS EN ISO 14064-1:2012. London, England: British Standards Institute. Retrieved from
  4. Defra. (2008). 2008 guidelines to Defra’s GHG conversion factors: Methodology paper for transport emission factors. London, England: Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. Retrieved from
  5. EPA. (2014). Ireland’s Greenhouse Gas Inventory 1990–2012. Wexford, Ireland: Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved from
  6. World Resources Institute. (2014). Product life cycle accounting and reporting standard. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute. Retrieved from;

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. F. Gray
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for the EnvironmentTrinity College, University of DublinDublinIreland

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