Amino acids are carboxylic acids with an amino-group in the α-position. With the exception of glycine, all amino acids are chiral; usually the L-form is used in living organisms. Twenty-two different amino acids are encoded in genes. Polycondensation of amino acids leads to peptides and proteins. The different side-chains of the various amino acids have different physicochemical properties and allow these amino acids to fulfil different functions inside a protein.


Isoelectric Point Carboxy Group Cyanogen Bromide Rare Amino Acid Uncharged Amino Acid 
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  1. 1.
    G.R. Grimsley, J.M. Scholtz, C.N. Pace, A summary of the measured pK values of the ionizable groups in folded proteins. Protein Sci. 18, 247–251 (2009). doi: 10.1002/pro.19PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar

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© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Engelbert Buxbaum
    • 1
  1. 1.KevelaerGermany

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