MIRROR: Automatic R2RML Mapping Generation from Relational Databases

  • Luciano Frontino de Medeiros
  • Freddy PriyatnaEmail author
  • Oscar Corcho
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9114)


Two W3C recommendations exist for the transformation of RDB content into RDF: Direct Mapping (DM) and R2RML. The DM recommendation specifies the set of fixed transformation rules, whilst R2RML allows customising them. Here we describe the MIRROR system, which generates two sets of R2RML mappings. First, it creates a set of mappings that allow any R2RML engine to generate a set of RDF triples homomorphic to the ones that a DM engine would generate (they only differentiate in the URIs used). This allows R2RML engines to exhibit a similar behaviour to that of DM engines. Second, it produces an additional set of R2RML mappings that allow generating triples resulting from the implicit knowledge encoded in relational database schemas, such as subclass-of and M-N relationships. We demonstrate the behaviour of MIRROR using the W3C DM Test Case together with an extended version of one of its databases.


Relational Database Transformation Rule Direct Mapping Database Schema Parent Table 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Arenas, M., Bertails, A., Prud, E., Sequeda, J., et al.: A direct mapping of relational data to RDF, W3C recommendation 27 september 2012 (2013)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Das, S., Sundara, S., Cyganiak, R.: R2RML: RDB to RDF mapping language. W3C recommendation, 27 september 2012 (2013)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Barrasa Rodríguez, J., Corcho, Ó., Gómez-Pérez, A.: R2O, an extensible and semantically based database-to-ontology mapping language (2004)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bizer, C., Cyganiak, R.: D2R server-publishing relational databases on the semantic web. In: Poster at the 5th International Semantic Web Conference (2006)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Auer, S., Dietzold, S., Lehmann, J., Hellmann, S., Aumueller, D.: Triplify: light-weight linked data publication from relational databases. In: Proceedings of the 18th international conference on World wide web, pp. 621–630. ACM (2009)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sequeda, J.F., Tirmizi, S.H., Corcho, O., Miranker, D.P.: Survey of directly mapping SQL databases to the semantic web. Knowledge Engineering Review 26, 445–486 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sequeda, J.F., Arenas, M., Miranker, D.P.: OBDA: query rewriting or materialization? in practice, both!. In: Mika, P., Tudorache, T., Bernstein, A., Welty, C., Knoblock, C., Vrandečić, D., Groth, P., Noy, N., Janowicz, K., Goble, C. (eds.) ISWC 2014, Part I. LNCS, vol. 8796, pp. 535–551. Springer, Heidelberg (2014) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Pequeno, V.M., Vidal, V.M., Casanova, M.A., Neto, L.E.T., Galhardas, H.: Specifying complex correspondences between relational schemas and RDF models for generating customized R2RML mappings. In: Proceedings of the 18th International Database Engineering & Applications Symposium, pp. 96–104. ACM (2014)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sengupta, K., Haase, P., Schmidt, M., Hitzler, P.: Editing R2RML mappings made easy. In: International Semantic Web Conference (Posters & Demos), pp. 101–104 (2013)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sequeda, J.F., Arenas, M., Miranker, D.P.: On directly mapping relational databases to RDF and OWL. In: Proceedings of the 21st international conference on World Wide Web, pp. 649–658. ACM (2012)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Priyatna, F., Corcho, O., Sequeda, J.: Formalisation and experiences of R2RML-based SPARQL to SQL query translation using morph. In: Proceedings of the 23rd international conference on World wide web, International World Wide Web Conferences Steering Committee, pp. 479–490 (2014)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Michel, F., Djimenou, L., Faron-Zucker, C., Montagnat, J.: xR2RML: Non-relational databases to RDF mapping. Technical report (2015)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dimou, A., Vander Sande, M., Colpaert, P., Verborgh, R., Mannens, E., Van de Walle, R.: RML: a generic language for integrated RDF mappings of heterogeneous data. In: Proceedings of the 7th Workshop on Linked Data on the Web (LDOW2014), Seoul, Korea (2014)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Luciano Frontino de Medeiros
    • 1
  • Freddy Priyatna
    • 2
    Email author
  • Oscar Corcho
    • 2
  1. 1.UNINTERCuritibaBrasil
  2. 2.Ontology Engineering GroupUniversidad Politécnica de MadridMadridSpain

Personalised recommendations