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Facial Feminization Surgery: Review of Facial Analysis and Surgical Procedures

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Abstract

The field of facial feminization surgery includes a range of procedures performed on the male to female transgender patient. These surgeries can increase the quality of life for this patient population and greatly help with feminine recognition by the public. Surgery is complemented by hormone therapy and coordinated with other medical and mental health professionals.

Facial analysis of the male to female transgender patient can be challenging, but the initial consultation is similar to other facial plastic surgery evaluations. This chapter reviews many “normal” values of facial analysis found in the literature with emphasis on the differences between stereotypic male and female faces.

Second, this chapter provides an overview of surgical procedures with particular importance given to upper face alteration. Facial feminization surgery can include procedures to address the upper face and hairline, nose, midface, lower face and mandible, and the larynx. Non-surgical therapy can also affect facial shape using injectables and implants. Finally, voice therapy or vocal procedures may help raise the pitch of the voice.

Challenges exist but should not deter a facial plastic surgeon from providing this important care to the male to female transgender community. A mutual understand of expectations will result in a more meaningful experience.

Keywords

  • Facial feminization surgery
  • Facial plastic surgery
  • Forehead cranioplasty
  • Reductive rhinoplasty

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Correspondence to Scott R. Chaiet M.D., M.B.A. .

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Chaiet, S.R. (2016). Facial Feminization Surgery: Review of Facial Analysis and Surgical Procedures. In: Eckstrand, K., Ehrenfeld, J. (eds) Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Healthcare. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-19752-4_21

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-19752-4_21

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-319-19751-7

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-319-19752-4

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