Mechanisms of Thrombosis

  • Carlos Jerjes-SánchezEmail author


In the era of translational medicine, clinical and molecular evidence provide several links between inflammation and pulmonary embolism suggesting a close relationship among atherothrombosis risk factors and venous thrombosis. Inflammation, a well-established pathway driven by interleukin-expression, could induce endothelial veins activity and vascular disease. Additionally, acute infections with collateral thrombosis mechanisms could have an important role. Considering all evidence linking inflammation with pulmonary embolism, it is possible that new elements have to be included in a contemporary viewpoint of Virchow’s triad and that unprovoked or idiopathic pulmonary embolism term has to be redefined. Currently, with the combination of improved models of venous thromboembolism and high-resolution microscopy techniques, new evidence linking molecular, cellular mechanisms, platelets and innate immune cells with venous thrombosis have been identified. Thrombosis triggered by systemic hypoxemia is mediated by tissue factor induction in macrophages following activation of the transcription factor early growth response-1 gene. This transcription factor with hypoxia inducible factor-1 is also an important transcription factor mediating adaptive responses to hypoxia in endothelium; in vitro, these responses include proinflammatory and pro-adhesive changes. Finally, pathologic evidence shows left and right myocarditis associated with endocardium thrombosis in patients who died secondary to pulmonary embolism.


Endothelial dysfunction Venous thrombosis Inflammation Interleukin-6 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Instituto de Cardiologia y Medicina Vascular, TEC SaludSan Pedro Garza GarciaMexico
  2. 2.Escuela de Medicina, Tecnológico de MonterreySan Pedro Garza GarciaMexico
  3. 3.Unidad de Investigacion Clinica en Medicina SCMonterreyMexico

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