Advertisement

Amyloidoses of the Kidney, the Lower Urinary and Genital Tracts (Male and Female), and the Breast

  • Maria M. PickenEmail author
  • Ahmet Dogan
Part of the Current Clinical Pathology book series (CCPATH)

Abstract

While most systemic amyloidoses can affect the genitourinary system, apart from renal, adrenal, and testicular amyloid deposits, other sites are usually silent or clinically less prominent. Systemic amyloidosis, presenting with lower urinary symptoms, is exceedingly rare, but it has been reported. Clinically, however, small fiber neuropathy and endocrine involvement are increasingly recognized. The former, which typically occurs in ATTR, but also in AL, may be responsible for lower genitourinary dysfunction, including dysuria, incontinence, and erectile dysfunction. The latter may be associated with functional impairment of the testes and adrenal glands. In general, patients presenting with urinary tract symptoms (painless hematuria, flank pain, hydronephrosis, mass, irritative bladder symptoms), if diagnosed with amyloidosis, are affected by localized amyloid deposits, which are present in the urinary tract in the absence of visceral involvement. Testicular involvement is not uncommon in systemic amyloidoses, in particular in AA, AL, AApoAI, ATTR, and dialysis-associated amyloidosis. In systemic AA and AApoAI amyloidosis, in particular, testicular involvement is frequently seen and, since it may affect young adults, its clinical relevance is increasingly recognized. Sub/infertility may be seen in both male and female patients affected by amyloidosis. It is most likely multifactorial and consequent to either actual gonad and/or endocrine gland involvement by amyloidosis or a side effect of treatment. Breast amyloidosis, and its increasingly recognized association with lymphoproliferative disorders, in particular extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT), is also briefly discussed.

Keywords

Amyloidosis Systemic Localized Kidney Adrenal gland Urinary bladder Testis Female genital organs Ovary Breast MALT lymphoma 

Abbreviations

AA

AA amyloidosis

AL

Amyloidosis derived from immunoglobulin light chain

ALECT2

Amyloidosis derived from leukocyte chemotactic factor 2

ATTR

Amyloidosis derived from transthyretin

References

  1. 1.
    Herrera GA, Picken MM. Renal diseases associated with plasma cell dyscrasias, amyloidoses, Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia and cryoglobulinemic nephropathies. In: Jennette JC, Olson JL, Silva FG, D’Agati V, editors. Heptinstall’s pathology of the kidney. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2014. p. 951–114.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ozdemir D, Dagdelen S, Erbas T. Endocrine involvement in systemic amyloidosis. Endocr Pract. 2010;16(6):1056–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ozdemir BH, Ozdemir OG, Ozdemir FN, Ozdemir AI. Value of testis biopsy in the diagnosis of systemic amyloidosis. Urology. 2002;59(2):201–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Scalvini T, Martini PR, Obici L, Tardanico R, Biasi L, Gregorini G, Scolari F, Merlini G. Infertility and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism as first evidence of hereditary apolipoprotein A-I amyloidosis. J Urol. 2007;178(1):344–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mijatovic V, Hompes PG, Wouters MG. Familial Mediterranean fever and its implications for fertility and pregnancy. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2003;108(2):171–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Piccin A, Vezzali N, Pescosta N, Steurer M, Palladini G, Billio A. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in systemic amyloidosis. Amyloid. 2014;21(1):69–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Nagasaka T, Togashi S, Watanabe H, Iida H, Nagasaka K, Nakamura Y, Miwa M, Kobayashi F, Shindo K, Shiozawa Z. Clinical and histopathological features of progressive-type familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy with TTR Lys54. J Neurol Sci. 2009;276(1–2):88–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Biewend ML, Menke DM, Calamia KT. The spectrum of localized amyloidosis: a case series of 20 patients and review of the literature. Amyloid. 2006;13(3):135–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Merrimen JL, Alkhudair WK, Gupta R. Localized amyloidosis of the urinary tract: case series of nine patients. Urology. 2006;67(5):904–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Paccalin M, Hachulla E, Cazalet C, Tricot L, Carreiro M, Rubi M, Grateau G, Roblot P. Localized amyloidosis: a survey of 35 French cases. Amyloid. 2005;12(4):239–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Tirzaman O, Wahner-Roedler DL, Malek RS, Sebo TJ, Li CY, Kyle RA. Primary localized amyloidosis of the urinary bladder: a case series of 31 patients. Mayo Clin Proc. 2000;75(12):1264–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Zhou F, Lee P, Zhou M, Melamed J, Deng FM. Primary localized amyloidosis of the urinary tract frequently mimics neoplasia: a clinicopathologic analysis of 11 cases. Am J Clin Exp Urol. 2014;2(1):71–5. eCollection 2014.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    von Hutten H, Mihatsch M, Lobeck H, Rudolph B, Eriksson M, Röcken C. Prevalence and origin of amyloid in kidney biopsies. Am J Surg Pathol. 2009;33(8):1198–205.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Larsen CP, Walker PD, Weiss DT, Solomon A. Prevalence and morphology of leukocyte chemotactic factor 2-associated amyloid in renal biopsies. Kidney Int. 2010;77(9):816–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hopfer H, Wiech T, Mihatsch MJ. Renal amyloidosis revisited: amyloid distribution, dynamics and biochemical type. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2011;26(9):2877–84. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfq831. Epub 2011 Mar 21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Said SM, Sethi S, Valeri AM, Leung N, Cornell LD, Fidler ME, Herrera Hernandez L, Vrana JA, Theis JD, Quint PS, Dogan A, Nasr SH. Renal amyloidosis: origin and clinicopathologic correlations of 474 recent cases. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2013;8:1515–23.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lobato L, Rocha A. Transthyretin amyloidosis and the kidney. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2012;7(8):1337–46. doi: 10.2215/CJN.08720811. Epub 2012 Apr 26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Schönland SO, Hegenbart U, Bochtler T, Mangatter A, Hansberg M, Ho AD, Lohse P, Röcken C. Immunohistochemistry in the classification of systemic forms of amyloidosis: a systematic investigation of 117 patients. Blood. 2012;119(2):488–93. doi: 10.1182/blood-2011-06-358507. Epub 2011 Nov 21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Said SM, Sethi S, Valeri AM, Chang A, Nast CC, Krahl L, Molloy P, Barry M, Fidler ME, Cornell LD, Leung N, Vrana JA, Theis JD, Dogan A, Nasr SH. Renal leukocyte chemotactic factor 2-associated amyloidosis. Kidney Int. 2014;86:370–7. Published online 22 January 2014.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Larsen CP, Kossmann RJ, Beggs ML, Solomon A, Walker PD. Renal leukocyte chemotactic factor 2 amyloidosis (ALECT2): a case series detailing clinical, morphologic, and genetic features. Kidney Int. 2014;86:378–82. Published online 12 February 2014.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Picken MM. Alect2 amyloidosis: primum non nocere (first, do no harm). Kidney Int. 2014;86(2):229–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sethi S, Theis JD, Leung N, Dispenzieri A, Nasr SH, Fidler ME, Cornell LD, Gamez JD, Vrana JA, Dogan A. Mass spectrometry-based proteomic diagnosis of renal immunoglobulin heavy chain amyloidosis. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010;5(12):2180–7.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Nasr SH, Said SM, Valeri AM, Sethi S, Fidler ME, Cornell LD, Gertz MA, Dispenzieri A, Buadi FK, Vrana JA, Theis JD, Dogan A, Leung N. The diagnosis and characteristics of renal heavy-chain and heavy/light-chain amyloidosis and their comparison with renal light-chain amyloidosis. Kidney Int. 2013;83(3):463–70. Epub 2013 Jan 9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Picken MM. Non-light-chain immunoglobulin amyloidosis: time to expand or refine the spectrum to include light+heavy chain amyloidosis? Kidney Int. 2013;83(3):353–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Leung N, Nasr SH, Sethi S. How I treat amyloidosis: the importance of accurate diagnosis and amyloid typing. Blood. 2012;120(16):3206–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bridoux F, Nelson L, Hutchison CA, Touchard G, Sethi S, Fermand JP, Picken MM, Herrera GA, Kastritis E, Merlini G, Roussel M, Fervenza FC, Dispenzieri A, Kyle RA, Nasr SH, on behalf of the International Kidney and Monoclonal Gammopathy Research Group. Diagnosis of monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance. Kid Int. 2015;87(4):698–711. doi: 10.1038/ki.2014.408. Epub ahead of print (21 January 2015), http://www.nature.com/doifinder/. 10.1038/ki.2014.408. Advance Online Publication (AOP) service.
  27. 27.
    Uemichi T, Liepnieks JJ, Benson MD. Hereditary renal amyloidosis with a novel variant fibrinogen. J Clin Invest. 1994;93(2):731–6.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Picken MM, Linke RP. Nephrotic syndrome due to an amyloidogenic mutation in Fibrinogen A alpha chain. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009;20:1681–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Masutani K, Nagata M, Ikeda H, Takeda K, Katafuchi R, Hirakata H, Tsuruya K, Iida M. Glomerular crescent formation in renal amyloidosis. A clinicopathological study and demonstration of upregulated cell-mediated immunity. Clin Nephrol. 2008;70(6):464–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hatakeyama T, Komatsuda A, Matsuda A, Togashi M, Maki N, Masai R, Sawada K, Wakui H. Renal amyloidosis associated with extracapillary glomerulonephritis and vasculitis in a patient with inflammatory bowel disease treated with infliximab. Clin Nephrol. 2008;70(3):240–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Crosthwaite A, Skene A, Mount P. Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis complicating primary AL amyloidosis and multiple myeloma. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2010;25(8):2786–9. Epub 2009 Dec 29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Sethi S, Theis JD, Shiller SM, Nast CC, Harrison D, Rennke HG, Vrana JA, Dogan A. Medullary amyloidosis associated with apolipoprotein A-IV deposition. Kidney Int. 2012;81(2):201–6. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.316. Epub 2011 Sep 7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Itabashi M, Takei T, Tsukada M, Sugiura H, Uchida K, Tsuchiya K, Honda K, Nitta K. Association between clinical characteristics and AL amyloid deposition in the kidney. Heart Vessels. 2010;25(6):543–8. Epub 2010 Oct 5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Eirin A, Irazabal MV, Gertz MA, Dispenzieri A, Lacy MQ, Shaji Kumar S, Sethi S, Nasr SH, Cornell LD, Fidler ME, Fervenza FC, Leung N. Clinical features of patients with immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis (AL) with vascular-limited deposition in the kidney. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2012;27:1097–101. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfr381. Advance Access publication 7 November 2011.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Steffl D, Göbel H, Groth C, Fischer KG, Kühn W, Walz G, Gerke P. Quiz page. Renal AA amyloidosis with vascular predominance, secondary to rheumatoid arthritis. Am J Kidney Dis. 2007;49(2):A49–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Nakayama N, Fujigaki Y, Tsuji T, Sakakima M, Yasuda H, Togawa A, Suzuki H, Fujikura T, Kato A, Baba S, Takahashi S, Hishida A. Rapid deterioration of renal function in a patient with multiple myeloma associated with amyloid and light chain depositions. Clin Exp Nephrol. 2009;13(6):671–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Picken MM. Amyloidosis—where are we now and where are we heading? Arch Path Lab Med. 2010;2010(134):545–51.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Picken MM. Current practice in amyloid detection and typing among renal pathologists. Amyloid. 2011;18 Suppl 1:73–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Vasala M, Immonen K, Kautiainen H, Hakala M. More evidence of declining incidence of amyloidosis associated with inflammatory rheumatic diseases. Scand J Rheumatol. 2010;39(6):461–5. Epub 2010 Jun 21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Benson MD, James S, Scott K, Liepnieks JJ, Kluve-Beckerman B. Leukocyte chemotactic factor 2: a novel renal protein. Kidney Int. 2008;74(2):218–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Mereuta OM, Theis JD, Vrana JA, Law ME, Grogg KI, Dasari S, Chandan VS, Wu TT, Jimenez-Zepeda VH, Fonseca R, Dispenzieri A, Kurtin PJ, Dogan A. Leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 2 (LECT2)-associated amyloidosis is a frequent cause of hepatic amyloidosis in the United States. Blood. 2014;123(10):1479–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Lachmann HJ, Booth DR, Booth SE, Bybee A, Gillbertson JA, Gillmore JD, Pepys MB, Hawkins PN. Misdiagnosis of hereditary amyloidosis as AL (primary) amyloidosis. N Engl J Med. 2002;346(23):1786–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Picken MM. New insights into systemic amyloidosis: the importance of type diagnosis. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2007;16:196–203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Miyazaki D, Yazaki M, Gono T, Kametani F, Tsuchiya A, Matsuda M, Takenaka Y, Hosh 2nd Y, Ikeda S. AH amyloidosis associated with an immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region (VH1) fragment: a case report. Amyloid. 2008;15(2):125–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Lachmann HJ, Goodman HJ, Gilbertson JA, Gallimore JR, Sabin CA, Gillmore JD, Hawkins PN. Natural history and outcome in systemic AA amyloidosis. N Engl J Med. 2007;356(23):2361–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Hutton HL, DeMarco ML, Magil AB, Taylor P. Renal leukocyte chemotactic factor 2 (LECT2) amyloidosis in First Nations people in Northern British Columbia, Canada: a report of 4 cases. Am J Kidney Dis. 2014;64(5):790–2. Published Online: July 24, 2014.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Gillmore JD, Lachmann HJ, Rowczenio D, Gilbertson JA, Zeng CH, Liu ZH, Li LS, Wechalekar A, Hawkins PN. Diagnosis, pathogenesis, treatment, and prognosis of hereditary fibrinogen A alpha-chain amyloidosis. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009;20(2):444–51.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Stangou AJ, Banner NR, Hendry BM, Rela M, Portmann B, Wendon J, Monaghan M, Maccarthy P, Buxton-Thomas M, Mathias CJ, Liepnieks JJ, O’Grady J, Heaton ND, Benson MD. Hereditary fibrinogen A alpha-chain amyloidosis: phenotypic characterization of a systemic disease and the role of liver transplantation. Blood. 2010;115(15):2998–3007.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Picken MM. Fibrinogen amyloidosis: the clot thickens! Blood. 2010;115(15):2985–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Eriksson M, Schönland S, Yumlu S, Hegenbart U, von Hutten H, Gioeva Z, Lohse P, Büttner J, Schmidt H, Röcken C. Hereditary apolipoprotein AI-associated amyloidosis in surgical pathology specimens: identification of three novel mutations in the APOA1 gene. J Mol Diagn. 2009;11(3):257–62.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Rowczenio D, Dogan A, Theis JD, Vrana JA, Lachmann HJ, Wechalekar AD, Gilbertson JA, Hunt T, Gibbs SD, Sattianayagam PT, Pinney JH, Hawkins PN, Gillmore JD. Amyloidogenicity and clinical phenotype associated with five novel mutations in apolipoprotein A-I. Am J Pathol. 2011;179(4):1978–87. doi: 10.1016/j.ajpath.2011.06.024. Epub 2011 Aug 5.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Maury CPJ, Kere J, Tolvanen R, de la Chapelle A. Homozygosity for the Asn187 gelsolin mutation in Finnish-type familial amyloidosis is associated with severe renal disease. Genomics. 1992;13(3):902–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Yazaki M, Farrell SA, Benson MD. A novel lysozyme mutation Phe57Ile associated with hereditary renal amyloidosis. Kidney Int. 2003;63(5):1652–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Palsdottir A, Snorradottir AO, Thorsteinsson L. Hereditary cystatin C amyloid angiopathy: genetic, clinical, and pathological aspects. Brain Pathol. 2006;16(1):55–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Mazanec K, McClure J, Bartley CJ, Newbould MJ, Ackrill PJ. Systemic amyloidosis of beta 2 microglobulin type. Clin Pathol. 1992;45(9):832–3.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Esslimani M, Serre I, Granier M, Robert M, Baldet P, Costes V. [Urogenital amyloidosis: clinico-pathological study of 8 cases]. Ann Pathol. 1999;19(6):487–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Davis P, Corcoran N, Hanegbi U, Bultitude M. Systemic amyloidosis presenting with lower urinary tract symptoms. ANZ J Surg. 2010;80(10):759–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Javed A, Canales BK, Maclennan GT. Bladder amyloidosis. J Urol. 2010;183(6):2388–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    DeSouza MA, Rekhi B, Thyavihally YB, Tongaonkar HB, Desai SB. Localized amyloidosis of the urinary bladder, clinically masquerading as bladder cancer. J Clin Rheumatol. 2008;14(3):161–5.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Monge M, Chauveau D, Cordonnier C, Noël LH, Presne C, Makdassi R, Jauréguy M, Lecaque C, Renou M, Grünfeld JP, Choukroun G. Localized amyloidosis of the genitourinary tract: report of 5 new cases and review of the literature. Medicine (Baltimore). 2011;90(3):212–22.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Borza T, Shah RB, Faerber GJ, Wolf Jr JS. Localized amyloidosis of the upper urinary tract: a case series of three patients managed with reconstructive surgery or surveillance. J Endourol. 2010;24(4):641–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Singh SK, Wadhwa P, Nada R, Mohan VC, Singh P, Jha V. Localized primary amyloidosis of the prostate, bladder and ureters. Int Urol Nephrol. 2005;37(3):495–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Duffau P, Imbert Y, De Faucal P, Fleury D, Arlet P, Camou F, Etienne G, Paccalin M. [Primary localized amyloidosis of the urinary tract. A case series of five patients]. Rev Med Interne. 2005;26(4):288–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Domiciano DS, de Carvalho JF. Primary localized amyloidosis of the ureter. Isr Med Assoc J. 2008;10(3):237–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Banerji JS, Gopalakrishnan G, Sriram K, Manipadam MT. Localised retroperitoneal amyloidosis mimicking retroperitoneal fibrosis: a rare cause of obstructive uropathy. Singapore Med J. 2009;50(9):e332–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Linke RP, Joswig R, Murphy CL, Wang S, Zhou H, Gross U, Rocken C, Westermark P, Weiss DT, Solomon A. Senile seminal vesicle amyloid is derived from semenogelin I. J Lab Clin Med. 2005;145(4):187–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Kee KH, Lee MJ, Shen SS, Suh JH, Lee OJ, Cho HY, Ayala AG, Ro JY. Amyloidosis of seminal vesicles and ejaculatory ducts: a histologic analysis of 21 cases among 447 prostatectomy specimens. Ann Diagn Pathol. 2008;12(4):235–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Zaman W, Singh V, Kumar B, Mandhani A, Srivastava A, Kumar A, Kapoor R. Localized primary amyloidosis of the genitourinary tract: does conservatism help? Urol Int. 2004;73(3):280–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Alsikafi NF, O’Connor RC, Yang XJ, Steinberg GD. Primary amyloidosis of the bladder treated with partial cystectomy. Can J Urol. 2003;10(4):1950–1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Hafron JM, Flanigan RC. Primary localized amyloidosis of the ureter and bladder managed by ileal interposition. Tech Urol. 2000;6(1):50–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Fushimi T, Takei Y, Touma T, Kudoh S, Yamamoto K, Hoshii Y, Ishihara T, Ikeda S. Bilateral localized amyloidosis of the ureters: clinicopathology and therapeutic approaches in two cases. Amyloid. 2004;11(4):260–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Patel S, Trivedi A, Dholaria P, Dholakia M, Devra A, Gupta B, Shah SA. Recurrent multifocal primary amyloidosis of urinary bladder. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl. 2008;19(2):247–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Hajji K, Martin L, Devevey JM, Tanter Y, Justrabo E, Rifle G, Mousson C. Rheumatoid arthritis-induced pseudotumoral AA amyloidosis of the bladder with vesico-peritoneal fistula. Clin Nephrol. 2007;67(1):38–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Akram CM, Al-Marhoon MS, Mathew J, Grant CS, Rao TV. Primary localized AA type amyloidosis of urinary bladder: case report of rare cause of episodic painless hematuria. Urology. 2006;68(6):1343.e15–7.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Boorjian S, Choi BB, Loo MH, Kim P, Sandhu J. A rare case of painless gross hematuria: primary localized AA-type amyloidosis of the urinary bladder. Urology. 2002;59(1):137.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Mount SL, Eltabbakh GH, Hardin NJ. Beta-2 microglobulin amyloidosis presenting as bilateral ovarian masses: a case report and review of the literature. Am J Surg Pathol. 2002;26(1):130–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Haimov-Kochman R, Prus D, Ben-Chetrit E. Azoospermia due to testicular amyloidosis in a patient with familial Mediterranean fever. Hum Reprod. 2001;16(6):1218–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Corvino C, Balloni F, Meliani E, Giannini A, Serni S, Carini M. Testicular amyloidosis. Urol Int. 2002;69(2):162–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Casella R, Nudell D, Cozzolino D, Wang H, Lipshultz LI. Primary testicular amyloidosis mimicking tumor in a cryptorchid testis. Urology. 2002;59(3):445.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Ogawa Y, Nakagawa M, Ikeda S. Prostate amyloid tumor is a clue leading to the diagnosis of systemic AL amyloidosis. Amyloid. 2013;20(3):193–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Meinzer U, Marie I, Koné-Paut I, Tran TA. Hypofertility in Muckle Wells syndrome and treatment with IL-1 targeting drugs. Pediatr Rheumatol Online J. 2011;9 Suppl 1:P14.PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Urieli-Shoval S, Finci-Yeheskel Z, Eldar I, Linke RP, Levin M, Prus D, Haimov-Kochman R. Serum amyloid A: expression throughout human ovarian folliculogenesis and levels in follicular fluid of women undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;98(12):4970–8. Epub 2013 Sep 12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Said SM, Reynolds C, Jimenez RE, Chen B, Vrana JA, Theis JD, Dogan A, Shah SS. Amyloidosis of the breast: predominantly AL type and over half have concurrent breast hematologic disorders. Mod Pathol. 2013;26:232–8. Published online 28 September 2012.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Tokuda T, Takei Y, Takayama B, Hoshii Y, Ikeda S. Severe amyloid deposition in mammary glands of familial amyloid polyneuropathy patients. Amyloid. 2007;14(3):249–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Setoguchi M, Hoshii Y, Kawano H, Ishihara T. Analysis of plasma cell clonality in localized AL amyloidosis. Amyloid. 2000;7:41–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Al-Maghrabi J, Kamel-Reid S, Jewett M, Gospodarowicz M, Wells W, Banerjee D. Primary low-grade B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type arising in the urinary bladder. Report of 4 cases with molecular analysis. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2001;125:332–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Garcia M, Konoplev S, Morosan C, Abruzzo LV, Bueso-Ramos CE, Medeiros JL. Malt lymphoma involving the kidney. A report of 10 cases and review of the literature. Am J Clin Pathol. 2007;128:464–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Otsuki H, Ito K, Sato K, Kosaka T, Shimazaki H, Kaji T, Asano T. Malignant lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue involving the renal pelvis and the entire ureter: a case report. Oncol Lett. 2013;5:1625–8.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Ryan RJH, Sloan JM, Collins AB, Mansouri J, Raje NS, Zukerberg LR, Ferry JA. Extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue with amyloid deposition: a clinicopathologic case series. Am J Clin Pathol. 2012;137:51–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Buchholz NP, Moch H, Gasser TC, Linke RP, Thiel GT, Mihatsch MJ. Ureteral amyloid deposits of beta 2-icroglobuin origin in both kidney recipients of 1 donor. J Urol. 1995;153(2):399–401.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Takahashi T, Miura H, Matsu-ura Y, Iwana S, Maruyama R, Harada T. Urine cytology of localized primary amyloidosis of the ureter: a case report. Acta Cytol. 2005;49(3):319–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Picken MM. Diagnosis of amyloid in urine cytology specimens. In: Hazenberg BPC, Bijzet J, editors. XIIIth International Symposium on Amyloidosis. The Netherlands: GUARD (Groningen Unit for Amyloidosis Research & Development) UMC Groningen; 2013. p. 161–2.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Chan ES, Ng CF, Chui KL, Hou SM, Yip SK. Primary bladder amyloidosis—case report of a patient with delayed upper urinary tract obstruction 3 years after the diagnosis. Amyloid. 2010;17(1):36–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Sparwasser C, Gilbert P, Mohr W, Linke RP. Unilateral extended amyloidosis of the renal pelvis and ureter: a case report. Urol Int. 1991;46(2):208–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Fugita OE, DeLatorre CG, Kavoussi LR. Primary localized amyloidosis of the ureter. Urology. 2001;58(2):281.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Erbersdobler A, Kollermann J, Graefen M, Röcken C, Schlomm T. Seminal vesicle amyloidosis does not provide any protection from invasion by prostate cancer. BJU Int. 2009;103(3):324–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Ichioka K, Utsunomiya N, Ueda N, Matsui Y, Yoshimura K, Terai A. Primary localized amyloidosis of urethra: magnetic resonance imaging findings. Urology. 2004;64(2):376–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Biyani CS, Fitzmaurice RJ, Upsdell SM. Localized amyloidosis of the urethra with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. BJU Int. 1999;83(6):722–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Crook TJ, Koslowski M, Dyer JP, Bass P, Birch BR. A case of amyloid of the urethra and review of this rare diagnosis, its natural history and management, with reference to the literature. Scand J Urol Nephrol. 2002;36(6):481–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Lim JH, Kim H. Localized amyloidosis presenting with a penile mass: a case report. Cases J. 2009;2:160.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Cormio L, Sanguedeolce F, Pentimone S, Perrone A, Annese A, Turri FP, Bufo P, Carrieri G. Urethral corpus spongiosum amyloidosis presenting with urethrorrhagia during erection. J Sex Med. 2009;6(10):2915–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Ritter M, Nawab RA, Tannenbaum M, Hakky SI, Morgan MB. Localized amyloidosis of the glans penis: a case report and literature review. J Cutan Pathol. 2003;30(1):37–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Kawsar M, Long S. Localized amyloidosis of glans penis. Int J STD AIDS. 2007;18(10):720–1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Dominguez Dominguez M, Valero Puerta JA, Jimenez Leiro JF, Martinez Ruiz R, Medina Perez M. Primary localized amyloidosis of glans penis. A new case and review of the literature. Actas Urol Esp. 2007;31(2):168–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Liu J, Zhai F, Ge P, Lu J, Qin Y, Sun X. Investigation of amyloid deposition in uterine leiomyoma patients. Health. 2012;4(8):522–5. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.4236/health.2012.48083.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Kotru M, Chandra H, Singh N, Bhatia A. Localized amyloidosis in endometrioid carcinoma of the uterus: a rare association. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2007;276(4):383–4. Epub 2007 Apr 4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Gibbons D, Lindberg GM, Ashfaq R, Saboorian MH. Localized amyloidosis of the uterine cervix. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 1998;17(4):368–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Yamada M, Hatakeyama S, Yamamoto E, Kimura Y, Tsukagoshi H, Yokota T, Uchino F. Localized amyloidosis of the uterine cervix. Virchows Arch A Pathol Anat Histopathol. 1988;413(3):265–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Tsang WY, Chan JK. Amyloid-producing squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1993;117(2):199–201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Roecken C, Kronsbein H, Sletten K, et al. Amyloidosis of the breast. Virchows Arch. 2002;440:527–35.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Charlot M, Seldin DC, O’Hara C, Skinner M, Sanchorawala V. Localized amyloidosis of the breast: a case series. Amyloid. 2011;18:72–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Morris GJ, Schmidt PH, Jagannath S. Two cases of plasma cell dyscrasias with systemic involvement of breast. Semin Oncol. 2014;41(4):e33–7. doi: 10.1053/j.seminoncol.2014.06.007. Epub 2014 Jun 26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Gupta D, Shidham V, Zemba-Palko V, et al. Primary bilateral mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of the breast with atypical ductal hyperplasia and localized amyloidosis. A case report and review of the literature. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2000;124:1233–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Sabate JM, Clotet M, Torrubia S, Guerrero R, Pineda R, Lerma E, Capdevila E. Localized amyloidosis of the breast associated with invasive lobular carcinoma. Br J Radiol. 2008;81:e252–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Toohey JM, Ismail K, Lonergan D, et al. Amyloidosis of the breast mimicking recurrence in a previously treated early breast cancer. Australas Radiol. 2007;51:594–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Chiang D, Lee M, Gaermaine P, Liao L. Amyloidosis of the breast with multicentric DCIS and pleomorphic invasive lobular carcinoma in a patient with underlying extranodal Castleman’s disease. Case Rep Radiol. 2013;2013:190856. 3 pages http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1155/2013/190856.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Sahoo S, Reeves W, DeMay RM. Amyloid tumor: a clinical and cytomorphologic study. Diagn Cytopathol. 2003;28(6):325–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PathologyLoyola University Medical Center, Loyola University ChicagoMaywoodUSA
  2. 2.Departments of Pathology and Laboratory MedicineMemorial Sloan Kettering Cancer CenterNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations