The respiratory system comprises the lips and palate, larynx, trachea, lungs, and diaphragm, and their development and abnormalities of development are described. Pulmonary cystic disease forms one such group of developmental abnormalities and includes congenital lobar emphysema, congenital pulmonary adenomatoid malformation (CPAM), and pulmonary sequestration. Maturation of the lung can be terminated if delivery occurs early, leading to respiratory distress clinically, which has been ameliorated by antenatal steroids and antioxidants and postdelivery surfactant therapy. The causes and pathology of respiratory distress in the newborn are described; these include hyaline membrane disease and meconium aspiration syndrome, as well as rarer entities such as surfactant protein deficiency and alveolar capillary dysplasia. The clinical and pathology characteristics of chronic lung disease have changed over the last 20 years, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia, “old” and “new,” are described.


Development Respiratory distress Respiratory distress syndrome Hyaline membrane disease Chronic lung disease Bronchopulmonary dysplasia Meconium aspiration syndrome Pulmonary cystic disease Alveolar capillary dysplasia Lung hypoplasia Surfactant protein deficiency Persistent pulmonary hypertension 


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© Springer International Publishing 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PathologyUniversity of AdelaideNorth AdelaideAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Obstetrics and GynaecologyUniversity of AdelaideNorth AdelaideAustralia
  3. 3.Department of HistopathologyWomen’s & Children’s HospitalNorth AdelaideAustralia

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