Pathology of Twinning

  • Robert W. BendonEmail author


Twin pregnancies have increased rates of premature labor, pregnancy-induced hypertension, breech lie, cerebral palsy, and perinatal death among other complications. Some of these complications are due to the poor adaptation of the human uterus to the increased demands and mass of twin pregnancy. Some complications are related to the obstetrical problems of delivering twins, although modern obstetric management greatly reduces these risks. This chapter will focus not on these general problems but on those associated more specifically with the formation of twins. The discussion will focus on twins as the simplest unit of multiple gestation. The same considerations usually apply to higher multiples of gestation, i.e., triplets, quadruplets, etc. These multiple gestation pregnancies have become more common with the increased use of assisted reproduction techniques.


Twins Multiple gestation Assisted reproduction Monozygosity Dizygosity Chorionicity In vitro fertilization Birth weight discordance Vanishing twin Malformations Conjoined twins Monochorionic placenta Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) Acardiac twin Twin-reversed arterial perfusion (TRAP) Monoamniotic twins 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PathologyKosair Children’s HospitalLouisvilleUSA

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