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Environmental Migration as a Humanitarian Challenge

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From Cold War to Cyber War
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Abstract

Environmental migration has received increasing attention in political and legal debates as well as in academic research. In all three contexts the complexity of the topic and the difficulties in addressing it adequately have been stressed. The ongoing discussions within humanitarian organizations themselves concerning this topic, however, have received limited research attention. Humanitarian organizations work closely with vulnerable populations, and are often among the first groups responding to local needs in their projects and relief operations. Starting from this observation, this research analyses both the challenges and opportunities in addressing the needs of environmental migrants from a humanitarian perspective. The study focuses on the positions developed within the International Red Cross/Red Crescent (RC/RC) Movement, particularly within the International Federation of the RC/RC (IFRC).

Dr. Kerstin Rosenow-Williams is a research associate at the Institute for International Law of Peace and Armed Conflict at the Ruhr-University Bochum.

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Notes

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  5. 5.

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  7. 7.

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  8. 8.

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  9. 9.

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  10. 10.

    G. Renaud et al., supra note 2.

  11. 11.

    O. Brown/R. McLeman, supra note 8.

  12. 12.

    J. McAdam, Climate Change Displacement and International Law: Complementary Protection Standards, Legal and Protection Policy Research Series, May 2011, at http://www.unhcr.org/4dff16e99.html (accessed on 17 April 2014).

  13. 13.

    V. Kolmannskog, Future Floods of Refugees: A Comment on Climate Change, Conflict and Forced Migration, Oslo 2008.

  14. 14.

    Foresight, Migration and Global Environmental Change. Future Challenges and Opportunities, London 2011, pp. 43 ff.

  15. 15.

    Foresight, supra note 2, p. 8.

  16. 16.

    J. McAdam, supra note 1, p. 38.

  17. 17.

    G. Renaud et al., supra note 2.

  18. 18.

    World Bank 2013, supra note 6, p. 132.

  19. 19.

    International Organization for Migration, Discussion Note: Migration and the Environment, 94th session, Doc. No. MC/INF/288, 1 November 2007, pp. 2–3.

  20. 20.

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  21. 21.

    O. Brown/R. McLeman, supra note 8.

  22. 22.

    K. Warner et al., supra note 2.

  23. 23.

    Foresight, supra note 2, p. 6.

  24. 24.

    Climate Service Center, The Hamburg Conference: Actions for Climate-Induced Migration, The Hamburg Conference Declaration, 18 July 2013, at http://www.climate-service-center.de/imperia/md/content/csc/workshopdokumente/hamburgconference/hamburg_declaration_final.pdf (accessed on 18 February 2014).

  25. 25.

    E. El-Hinnawi, Environmental Refugees, Nairobi 1985.

  26. 26.

    UNHCR, supra note 1; IFRC, World Disasters Report 2012: Focus on Forced Migration and Displacement, 2012, at http://www.ifrcmedia.org/assets/pages/wdr2012/resources/1216800-WDR-2012-EN-FULL.pdf (accessed on 17 April 2014).

  27. 27.

    UNHCR, Forced Displacement in the Context of Climate Change, supra note 1; UNHCR, Climate Change and Statelessness, supra note 1.

  28. 28.

    United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Report of the Conference of the Parties on Its Sixteenth Session, Cancun, 29 November – 10 December 2010, UNFCC/CP/2010/7/Add.1, para. 14 (f).

  29. 29.

    N. Hall, Moving Beyond its Mandate? UNHCR and Climate Change Displacement, in: Journal of International Organizations Studies 4 (2013), pp. 91–108; Ministerial Communiqué, Intergovernmental Event at the Ministerial Level of Member States of the United Nations on the Occasion of the 60th Anniversary of the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees and the 50th Anniversary of the 1961 Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness, HCR/MINCOMMS/2011/6, 7–8 December 2011; J. McAdam, Creating New Norms on Climate Change, Natural Disasters and Displacement: International Developments 2010–2013, in: Refuge 29 (2013), pp. 15–16.

  30. 30.

    The Nansen Initiative, About Us, 2014, at http://www.nanseninitiative.org/ (accessed on 18 February 2014).

  31. 31.

    The Nansen Initiative, Strategic Framework and Work Plan 2014–15: Nansen Initiative, 29 January 2014, at http://www.nanseninitiative.org/sites/default/files/Nansen%20Initiative%20Work%20Plan%202014%20%2829%20January%202014%29.pdf (accessed on 11 February 2014), p. 1.

  32. 32.

    Inter-Agency Standing Committee, Quick Guide to Climate Change Adaptation, 2010, at http://www.humanitarianinfo.org/iasc/downloaddoc.aspx?docID=5436&type=pdf (accessed on 25 July 2014), p. 1.

  33. 33.

    Inter-Agency Standing Committee, Climate Change, Migration and Displacement: Who Will be Affected? Working Paper Submitted by the Informal Group on Migration/ Displacement and Climate Change of the IASC, 31 October 2008, p. 1; N. Hall, A Catalyst for Cooperation? The Inter-Agency Standing Committee and the Humanitarian Response to Climate Change, forthcoming.

  34. 34.

    W. Kälin/N. Schrepfer, supra note 1; J. McAdam, supra note 1; J. McAdam, supra note 12; V. Kolmannskog, supra note 1; V. Kolmannskog/F. Myrstad, supra note 1.

  35. 35.

    UNHCR, Convention and Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees, Geneva 2010.

  36. 36.

    UNHCR, Expert Meeting on Complementarities between International Refugee Law, International Criminal Law and International Human Rights Law: Summary Conclusions, Geneva 2011.

  37. 37.

    M. Leighton, supra note 1, p. 2.

  38. 38.

    UNHCR, supra note 35.

  39. 39.

    Ibid.

  40. 40.

    UNHCR, Forced Displacement in the Context of Climate Change, supra note 1.

  41. 41.

    Ibid.

  42. 42.

    J. McAdam, supra note 12, pp. 12–13.

  43. 43.

    New Zealand High Court, Teitiota v Chief Executive of the Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment, NZHC 3125, 26 November 2013.

  44. 44.

    United Nations General Assembly, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, Opened for Signature 16 December 1966, 999 UNTS 171, entered into force 23 March 1976.

  45. 45.

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  46. 46.

    United Nations, Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement, Geneva 2004.

  47. 47.

    J. McAdam, supra note 12; J. McAdam, supra note 1; V. Kolmannskog/F. Myrstad, supra note 1.

  48. 48.

    D. Hodgkinson/L. Young, supra note 1.

  49. 49.

    European Union, Council Directive 2001/55, in: Official Journal of the European Communities (2001), L.212/12.

  50. 50.

    African Union, African Union Convention for the Protection and Assistance of Internally Displaced Persons in Africa (Kampala Convention). Adopted by the Special Summit of the Union held in Kampala, Uganda, 22 October 2009, at http://www.au.int/en/sites/default/files/AFRICAN_UNION_CONVENTION_FOR_THE_PROTECTION_AND_ASSISTANCE_OF_INTERNALLY_DISPLACED_PERSONS_IN_AFRICA(KAMPALA_CONVENTION).pdf (accessed on 24 March 2014).

  51. 51.

    M. Leighton, supra note 1, pp. 6–7.

  52. 52.

    ICRC/IFRC, Handbook of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, Geneva 2008, p. 830.

  53. 53.

    ICRC, The Seville Agreement – Council of Delegates, Sevilla, 25–27 November 1997, in: International Review of the Red Cross 322 (1997).

  54. 54.

    ICRC, International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, 09 November 2011, at http://www.icrc.org/eng/who-we-are/movement/international-conference/overview-international-conference-of-the-red-cross-and-red-crescent.htm (accessed on 19 February 2014); IFRC, The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, 2014, at http://www.ifrc.org/en/who-we-are/the-movement (accessed on 19 February 2014).

  55. 55.

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  56. 56.

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  57. 57.

    Red Cross/Red Crescent Climate Centre, Climate Guide, The Hague 2007, p. 18.

  58. 58.

    Interview RCCC staff, 26 September 2013.

  59. 59.

    Ibid.

  60. 60.

    IFRC, Climate Change and Human Mobility: A Humanitarian Point of View, 22 April 2009, at https://www.ifrc.org/Global/Publications/disasters/climate%20change/climate_change_and_human_mobility-en.pdf (accessed on 17 April 2014), p. 1.

  61. 61.

    Id., p. 3.

  62. 62.

    Ibid.

  63. 63.

    United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, Fact-Sheet on Contribution of Migrants to Development: Trade, Investment and Development Links, Geneva 2010.

  64. 64.

    IFRC, supra note 26.

  65. 65.

    Id., p. 231.

  66. 66.

    Id., pp. 231–237.

  67. 67.

    Id., p. 237.

  68. 68.

    Interview, 4 September 2013.

  69. 69.

    IFRC, supra note 26, p. 201.

  70. 70.

    World Bank, supra note 6.

  71. 71.

    IFRC, supra note 26, pp. 202–204.

  72. 72.

    Id., p. 190.

  73. 73.

    Ibid.

  74. 74.

    Cf. The Nansen Initiative, supra note 30.

  75. 75.

    IFRC, supra note 26, p. 237.

  76. 76.

    European Union, supra note 49.

  77. 77.

    African Union, supra note 50.

  78. 78.

    Cf. International Colloquium in Commemoration of the ‘Tenth Anniversary of the Cartagena Declaration on Refugees’, San Jose Declaration on Refugees and Displaced Persons: Conclusions and Recommendations, San José, 5–7 December 1994, at http://www.refworld.org/pdfid/4a54bc3fd.pdf (accessed on 29 March 2014).

  79. 79.

    Organization of American States, Mexico Declaration and Plan of Action to Strengthen the International Protection of Refugees in Latin America, Mexico City, 16 November 2004, at http://www.oas.org/dil/mexico_declaration_plan_of_action_16nov2004.pdf (accessed on 29 March 2014).

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Rosenow-Williams, K. (2016). Environmental Migration as a Humanitarian Challenge. In: Heintze, HJ., Thielbörger, P. (eds) From Cold War to Cyber War. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-19087-7_6

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