The Human Side of Automation
Full automation is good. But the path toward full automation must traverse the dangerous stages of partial automation, where the very successes of automation may make human drivers less able to respond to the unexpected, unavoidable imperfections of the automation. The appropriate design path to deal with this requires us to reconsider the driver and automation as a team, as collaborative partners.
KeywordsHuman factors Design Teamwork
I thank Ed Hutchins at University of California, San Diego and Steve Casner of NASA, Ames for their contributions to my thinking.
- 1.Norman DA (1990) The “problem” of automation: inappropriate feedback and interaction, not “over-automation”. In: Broadbent DE, Baddeley A, Reason JT (eds) Human factors in hazardous situations. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 585–593Google Scholar
- 3.Casner SM, Hutchins EL, Norman DA (2014) The challenges of partially automated driving. (submitted for publication)Google Scholar
- 4.NHTSA (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration) (2013) US department of transportation releases policy on automated vehicle development. Retrieved from http://www.nhtsa.gov/About+NHTSA/Press+Releases/U.S.+Department+of+Transportation+Releases+Policy+on+Automated+Vehicle+Development. Accessed 21 Sept 2014
- 5.Department of Defense: Defense Science Board (2012) Task force report: the role of autonomy in DOD systems. Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics, Washington, DC. http://www.fas.org/irp/agency/dod/dsb/autonomy.pdf
- 6.National Research Council (2014) Complex operational decision making in networked systems of humans and machines: a multidisciplinary approach. The National Academies Press. http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=18844
- 7.Johnson M, Bradshaw JM, Hoffman RR, Feltovich PJ, Woods DD (2014) Seven cardinal virtues of human-machine teamwork: examples from the DARPA robotic challenge. http://www.jeffreymbradshaw.net/publications/140804-Seven%20Cardinal%20Virtues-changes%20accepted.pdf
- 8.Norman DA (2007) The design of future things. Basic Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar