Hydration Forces Between Lipid Bilayers: A Theoretical Overview and a Look on Methods Exploring Dehydration

  • Helge PfeifferEmail author
Part of the Subcellular Biochemistry book series (SCBI, volume 71)


Although, many biological systems fulfil their functions under the condition of excess hydration, the behaviour of bound water as well as the processes accompanying dehydration are nevertheless important to investigate. Dehydration can be a result of applied mechanical pressure, lowered humidity or cryogenic conditions. The effort required to dehydrate a lipid membrane at relatively low degree of hydration can be described by a disjoining pressure which is called hydration pressure or hydration force. This force is short-ranging (a few nm) and is usually considered to be independent of other surface forces, such as ionic or undulation forces. Different theories were developed to explain hydration forces that are usually not consistent with each other and which are also partially in conflict with experimental or numerical data.

Over the last decades it has been more and more realised that one experimental method alone is not capable of providing much new insight into the world of such hydration forces. Therefore, research requires the comparison of results obtained from the different methods. This chapter thus deals with an overview on the theory of hydration forces, ranging from polarisation theory to protrusion forces, and presents a selection of experimental techniques appropriate for their characterisation, such as X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and even calorimetry.


Hydration forces Controlled hydration Osmotic stress Polarization Protrusion Sorption Percolation Plasticizer 


  1. Adam J, Langer P, Stark G (1995) Physikalische Chemie und Biophysik. Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aksan A, Hubel A, Bischof JC (2009) Frontiers in biotransport: water transport and hydration. J Biomech Eng-Trans ASME 131. doi: 10.1115/1.3173281 074004–1
  3. Aniansson GEA (1978) Dynamics and structure of micelles and other amphiphile structures. J Phys Chem 82:2805–2808CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bach D, Sela B, Miller CR (1982) Compositional aspects of lipid hydration. Chem Phys Lipids 31:381–394PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Balasubramanian SK, Wolkers WF, Bischof JC (2009) Membrane hydration correlates to cellular biophysics during freezing in mammalian cells. Biochim Biophys Acta-Biomembr 1788:945–953CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baumgart T, Offenhäusser A (2002) Lateral diffusion in substrate-supported lipid monolayers as a function of ambient relative humidity. Biophys J 83:1489–1500PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ben-Shaul A (1995) Molecular theory of chain packing, elasticity and lipid-protein interaction in lipid bilayers. In: Lipowsky ES (eds) Elsevier Science North-Holland, 1995.Google Scholar
  8. Binder H, Gawrisch K (2001) Dehydration induces lateral expansion of polyunsaturated 18: 0–22: 6 phosphatidylcholine in a new lamellar phase. Biophys J 81:969–982PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Binder H, Anikin A, Kohlstrunk B, Klose G (1997) Hydration-induced gel states of the dienic lipid 1,2-bis(2,4- octadecadienoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine and their characterization using infrared spectroscopy. J Phys Chem B 101:6618–6628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Binder H, Kohlstrunk B, Heerklotz HH (1999a) Hydration and lyotropic melting of amphiphilic molecules: a thermodynamic study using humidity titration calorimetry. J Colloid Interface Sci 220:235–249PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Binder H, Kohlstrunk B, Heerklotz HH (1999b) A humidity titration calorimetry technique to study the thermodynamics of hydration. Chem Phys Lett 304:329–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Binder H, Dietrich U, Schalke M, Pfeiffer H (1999c) Hydration-induced deformation of lipid aggregates before and after polymerization. Langmuir 15:4857–4866CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bryant G, Pope JM, Wolfe J (1992) Motional narrowing of the H-2 NMR-spectra near the chain melting transition of phospholipid/D2O mixtures. Eur Biophys J Biophys Lett 21:363–367Google Scholar
  14. Butt H-J, Cappella B, Kappl M (2005) Force measurements with the atomic force microscope: technique, interpretation and applications. Surf Sci Rep 59:1–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cevc G (1987) Phospholipid bilayers. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  16. Cevc G (1991) Hydration force and the interfacial structure of the polar surface. J Chem Soc, Faraday Trans 87:2733–2739CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cevc G, Marsh D (1985) Hydration of noncharged lipid bilayer-membranes – theory and experiments with phosphatidylethanolamines. Biophys J 47:21–31PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Christenson HK, Horn RG (1983) Direct measurement of the force between solid surfaces in a polar liquid. Chem Phys Lett 98:45–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cleveland J, Schäffer T, Hansma P (1995) Probing oscillatory hydration potentials using thermal-mechanical noise in an atomic-force microscope. Phys Rev B 52:R8692–R8695CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Daniels PH (2009) A brief overview of theories of PVC plasticization and methods used to evaluate PVC-plasticizer interaction. J Vinyl Addit Techn 15:219–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Diprimo C, Deprez E, Hoa GHB, Douzou P (1995) Antagonistic effects of hydrostatic-pressure and osmotic- pressure on cytochrome p-450(cam) spin transition. Biophys J 68:2056–2061CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Disalvo EA, Lairion F, Martini F, Tymczyszyn E, Frias M, Almaleck H, Gordillo GJ (2008) Structural and functional properties of hydration and confined water in membrane interfaces. Biochim Biophys Acta-Biomembr 1778:2655–2670CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dunstan DJ, Spain IL (1989) The technology of diamond anvil high-pressure cells .1. Principles, design and construction. J Phys E-Sci Instrum 22:913–923Google Scholar
  24. Eisenblätter S, Galle J, Volke F (1994) Spin–lattice relaxation of (H2O)-H-2 at amphiphile water interfaces as seen by NMR. Chem Phys Lett 228:89–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Essam JW (1980) Percolation theory. Rep Prog Phys 43:833–912CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Evans DF, Wennerström H (1994) The colloidal domain: where physics, chemistry, biology, and technology meet. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  27. Franca MB, Panek AD, Eleutherio ECA (2007) Oxidative stress and its effects during dehydration. Comp Biochem Physiol A-Mol Integr Physiol 146:621–631PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Freund LB (2013) Entropic pressure between biomembranes in a periodic stack due to thermal fluctuations. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:2047–2051PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fukuma T, Higgins MJ, Jarvis SP (2007) Direct imaging of individual intrinsic hydration layers on lipid bilayers at Angstrom resolution. Biophys J 92:3603–3609PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Funari SS, Mädler B, Rapp G (1996) Cubic topology in surfactant and lipid mixtures. Eur Biophys J Biophys Lett 24:293–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gawrisch K, Arnold K, Gottwald T, Klose G, Volke F (1978) D-2 NMR-studies of phosphate – water interaction in dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine – water-systems. Stud Biophys 74:13–14Google Scholar
  32. Ge MT, Freed JH (2003) Hydration, structure, and molecular interactions in the headgroup region of dioleoylphosphatidylcholine bilayers: an electron spin resonance study. Biophys J 85:4023–4040PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gordeliy VI (1996) Possibility of direct experimental check up of the theory of repulsion forces between amphiphilic surfaces via neutron and X-ray diffraction. Langmuir 12:3498–3502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gordeliy VI, Cherezov VG, Teixeira J (1996) Evidence of entropic contribution to “hydration” forces between membranes.2. Temperature dependence of the “hydration” force: a small angle neutron scattering study. J Mol Struct 383:117–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gruen DWR, Marcelja S (1983) Spatially varying polarization in water – a model for the electric double-layer and the hydration force. J Chem Soc, Faraday TransII 79:225–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hawton MH, Doane JW (1987) Pretransitional phenomena in phospholipid water multilayers. Biophys J 52:401–404PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hayashi T, Pertsin AJ, Grunze M (2002) Grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation of hydration forces between nonorienting and orienting structureless walls. J Chem Phys 117:6271–6280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Helfrich W (1978) Steric interaction of fluid membranes in multilayer systems. Z. Naturforsch, A: Phys Sci 33:305–315Google Scholar
  39. Heremans K, Meersman F, Pfeiffer H, Rubens P, Smeller L (2000) Pressure effects on biopolymer structure and dynamics. High Pressure Res 19:623–630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Higgins MJ, Polcik M, Fukuma T, Sader JE, Nakayama Y, Jarvis SP (2006) Structured water layers adjacent to biological membranes. Biophys J 91:2532–2542PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Israelachvili JN, Adams GE (1978) Measurement of forces between two mica surfaces in aqueous electrolyte solutions in the range 0–100 nm. J Chem Soc, Faraday Trans 1 74:975–1001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Israelachvili JN, Wennerström H (1990) Hydration or steric forces between amphiphilic surfaces. Langmuir 6:873–876CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Israelachvili JN, Wennerström H (1992) Entropic forces between amphiphilic surfaces in liquids. J Phys Chem 96:520–531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Israelachvili JN, Wennerström H (1996) Role of hydration and water structure in biological and colloidal interactions. Nature 379:219–225PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Jürgens E, Höhne G, Sackmann E (1983) Calorimetric study of the dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine water phase-diagram. Ber Bunsen-Ges Phys Chem 87:95–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Jayne J (1982) Determination of hydration numbers by near-infrared – modification of an earlier approach. J Chem Educ 59:882–884CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Jendrasiak GL, Smith RL (2004) The interaction of water with the phospholipid head group and its relationship to the lipid electrical conductivity. Chem Phys Lipids 131:183–195PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Klose G, König B, Paltauf F (1992) Sorption isotherms and swelling of POPC in H2O and (H2O)-H-2. Chem Phys Lipids 61:265–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Klose G, Eisenblätter S, König B (1995a) Ternary phase-diagram of mixtures of palmitoyl-oleoyl- phosphatidylcholine, tetraoxyethylene dodecyl ether, and heavy- water as seen by p-31 and h-2 nmr. J Colloid Interface Sci 172:438–446Google Scholar
  50. Klose G, Eisenblätter S, Galle J, Islamov A, Dietrich U (1995b) Hydration and structural-properties of a homologous series of nonionic alkyl oligo(ethylene oxide) surfactants. Langmuir 11:2889–2892CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kodama M, Kawasaki Y, Aoki H, Furukawa Y (2004) Components and fractions for differently bound water molecules of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine-water system as studied by DSC and H-2-NMR spectroscopy. Biochim Biophys Acta-Biomembr 1667:56–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. König B (1993) Untersuchungen zum Hydratationsverhalten von mit nichtionischen Tensiden modifizierten Phospholipidmembranen. University of LeipzigGoogle Scholar
  53. Koynova R, Tenchov B (2001) Interactions of surfactants and fatty acids with lipids. Curr Opin Colloid Interface Sci 6:277–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kranenburg M, Smit B (2005) Phase behavior of model lipid bilayers. J Phys Chem B 109:6553PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kunz W, Lo Nostro P, Ninham BW (2004) The present state of affairs with Hofmeister effects. Curr Opin Colloid Interface Sci 9:1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Leckband D, Israelachvili JN (2001) Intermolecular forces in biology. Q Rev Biophys 34:105–267PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Leneveu DM, Rand RP, Parsegian VA (1976) Measurement of forces between lecithin bilayers. Nature 259:601–603PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Leneveu DM, Rand RP, Parsegian VA, Gingell D (1977) Measurement and modification of forces between lecithin bilayers. Biophys J 18:209–230PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Leng YS (2012) Hydration Force between Mica Surfaces in Aqueous KCl Electrolyte Solution. Langmuir 28:5339–5349PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Li S, Tang J, Chinachoti P (1996) Thermodynamics of starch-water systems: an analysis from solution-gel model on water sorption isotherms. J Polym Sci Part B Polym Phys 34:2579–2589CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Luzzati V, Chapman D (1968) X-ray diffraction studies of lipid-water systems. In: Biological membranes, physical fact and function. Academic press, London, pp 71–124Google Scholar
  62. Marcelja S, Radic N (1976) Repulsion of interfaces due to boundary water. Chem Phys Lett 42:129–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Marra J, Israelachvili JN (1985) Direct measurements of forces between phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine bilayers in aqueous-electrolyte solutions. Biochemistry 24:4608–4618PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Marrinck JS, Berkowitz M (1995) Water and membranes. In: Disalvo EA, Simon SA (eds) Permeability and stability of lipid bilayers. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 21–48Google Scholar
  65. Marsh D (1990) Handbook of lipid bilayers. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  66. Marsh D (2011) Water adsorption isotherms of lipids. Biophys J 101:2704–2712PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Moore WJ (1972) Physical chemistry. Prentice Hall, Englewood CliffsGoogle Scholar
  68. Nagle JF, Tristram-Nagle S (2000) Structure of lipid bilayers. Biochim Biophys Acta Rev Biomembranes 1469:159–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Orozco-Alcaraz R, Kuhl TL (2013) Interaction forces between DPPC bilayers on glass. Langmuir 29:337PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Parsegian VA, Rand RP (1991) On molecular protrusion as the source of hydration forces. Langmuir 7:1299–1301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Parsegian VA, Zemb T (2011) Hydration forces: observations, explanations, expectations, questions. Curr Opin Colloid Interface Sci 16:618–624CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Parsegian VA, Fuller N, Rand RP (1979) Measured work of deformation and repulsion of lecithin bilayers. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 76:2750–2754PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Parsegian VA, Rand RP, Fuller NL, Rau DC (1986) Osmotic-stress for the direct measurement of intermolecular forces. Methods Enzymol 127:400–416PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Parsegian VA, Rand RP, Rau DC (1995) Macromolecules and water: probing with osmotic stress. Methods Enzymol 259:43–94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Pfeiffer H, Binder H, Klose G, Heremans K (2003a) Hydration pressure and phase transitions of phospholipids – I. Piezotropic approach. Biochim Biophys Acta-Rev Biomembr 1609:144–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Pfeiffer H, Binder H, Klose G, Heremans K (2003b) Hydration pressure and phase transitions of phospholipids – II. Thermotropic approach. Biochim Biophys Acta-Biomembr 1609:148–152Google Scholar
  77. Pfeiffer H, Winter R, Klose G, Heremans K (2003c) Thermotropic and piezotropic phase behaviour of phospholipids in propanediols and water. Chem Phys Lett 367:370–374Google Scholar
  78. Pfeiffer H, Winter R, Klose G, Heremans K (2003d) Thermotropic and piezotropic phase behaviour of phospholipids in propanediols and water. Chem Phys Lett 371:670–674CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Pfeiffer H, Binder H, Klose G, Heremans K (2004) Hydration pressure of a homologous series of nonionic alkyl hydroxyoligo(ethylene oxide) surfactants. Phys Chem Chem Phys 6:614–618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Pfeiffer H, Klose G, Heremans K (2010) Thermodynamic and structural behaviour of equimolar POPC/CnE4 (n=8,12,16) mixtures by sorption gravimetry, 2H-NMR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Chem Phys Lipids 163:318–328PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Pfeiffer H, Heer P, Pitropakis I, Pyka G. Kerckhofs G, Patitsa M, Wevers M (2011) Liquid detection in confined aircraft structures based on lyotropic percolation thresholds. Sens Actuators, BGoogle Scholar
  82. Pfeiffer H, Weichert H, Klose G, Heremans K (2012) Hydration behaviour of POPC/C-12-Bet mixtures investigated by sorption gravimetry, P-31 NMR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Chem Phys Lipids 165:244–251PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Pfeiffer H, Klose G, Heremans K (2013a) Reorientation of hydration water during the thermotropic main phase transition of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleolyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) bilayers at low degrees of hydration. Chem Phys Lett 572:120–124Google Scholar
  84. Pfeiffer H, Klose G, Heremans K (2013b) FTIR spectroscopy study of the pressure-dependent behaviour of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleolyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) at low hydration degree - red shift and hindered correlation field splitting. Chem Phys Lipids 170–171:33–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Pfeiffer H, Heer P, Winkelmans M, Taza W, Pitropakis I, Wevers M (2014) Leakage monitoring using percolation sensors for revealing structural damage in engineering structures. Struct Control Health 21:1030–1042CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Rand RP, Parsegian VA (1989) Hydration forces between phospholipid-bilayers. Biochim Biophys Acta 988:351–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Rand RP, Fuller NL, Butko P, Francis G, Nicholls P (1993) Measured change in protein solvation with substrate-binding and turnover. Biochemistry 32:5925–5929PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Ricci C, Caprioli M, Boschetti C, Santo N (2005) Macrotrachela quadricornifera featured in a space experiment. Hydrobiologia 534:239–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Rothschild LJ, Mancinelli RL (2001) Life in extreme environments. Nature 409:1092–1101PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Scharnagl C, Reif M, Friedrich J (2005) Local compressibilities of proteins: comparison of optical experiments and simulations for horse heart cytochrome c. Biophys J 89:64–75PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Scherer JR (1987) The partial molar volume of water in biological-membranes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 84:7938–7942PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Schmiedel H, Jorchel P, Kiselev M, Klose G (2001) Determination of structural parameters and hydration of unilamellar POPC/C12E4 vesicles at high water excess from neutron scattering curves using a novel method of evaluation. J Phys Chem B 105:111–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Schneck E, Sedlmeier F, Netz RR (2012) Hydration repulsion between biomembranes results from an interplay of dehydration and depolarization. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:14405PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Sharma P (2013) Entropic force between membranes reexamined. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:1976–1977PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Simon SA, Fink CA, Kenworthy AK, McIntosh TJ (1991) The hydration pressure between lipid bilayers – comparison of measurements using x-ray-diffraction and calorimetry. Biophys J 59:538–546PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Simon SA, Advani S, McIntosh TJ (1995) Temperature-dependence of the repulsive pressure between phosphatidylcholine bilayers. Biophys J 69:1473–1483PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Spain IL, Dunstan DJ (1989) The technology of diamond anvil high-pressure cells.2. Operation and use. J Phys E-Sci Instrum 22:923–933CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Trokhymchuk A, Henderson D, Wasan DT (1999) A molecular theory of the hydration force in an electrolyte solution. J Colloid Interface Sci 210:320–331PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Ulrich AS, Watts A (1994a) Lipid headgroup hydration studied by H-2-NMR – a link between spectroscopy and thermodynamics. Biophys Chem 49:39–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Ulrich AS, Watts A (1994b) Molecular response of the lipid headgroup to bilayer hydration monitored by H-2-Nmr. Biophys J 66:1441–1449PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Ulrich AS, Sami M, Watts A (1994) Hydration of DOPC bilayers by differential scanning calorimetry. Biochim Biophys Acta-Biomembr 1191:225–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Valle-Delgado JJ, Molina-Bolivar JA, Galisteo-Gonzalez F, Galvez-Ruiz MJ (2011) Evidence of hydration forces between proteins. Curr Opin Colloid Interface Sci 16:572–578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Volke F, Eisenblätter S, Klose G (1994a) Hydration force parameters of phosphatidylcholine lipid bilayers as determined from H-2-NMR studies of deuterated water. Biophys J 67:1882–1887PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Volke F, Eisenblätter S, Galle J, Klose G (1994b) Dynamic properties of water at phosphatidylcholine lipid- bilayer surfaces as seen by deuterium and pulsed-field gradient proton nmr. Chem Phys Lipids 70:121–131PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Wilkinson DA, Nagle JF (1981) Dilatometry and calorimetry of saturated phosphatidylethanolamine dispersions. Biochemistry 20:187–192PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. White SH, Jacobs RE, King GI (1987) Partial specific volumes of lipid and water in mixtures of egg lecithin and water. Biophys J 52:663–665PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Winter R, Pilgrim WC (1989) A SANS study of high-pressure phase-transitions in model biomembranes. Ber Bunsen-Ges Phys Chem 93:708–717CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Wolfe J, Yan ZJ, Pope JM (1994) Hydration forces and membrane stresses – cryobiological implications and a new technique for measurement. Biophys Chem 49:51–58PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Wong PTT, Moffatt DJ, Baudais FL (1985) Crystalline quartz as an internal-pressure calibrant for high-pressure infrared-spectroscopy. Appl Spectrosc 39:733–735CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Zemb T, Parsegian VA (2011) Editorial overview: hydration forces. Curr Opin Colloid Interface Sci 16:515–516CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering (MTM)University of Leuven (KU Leuven)LeuvenBelgium

Personalised recommendations