Matter Under Extreme Conditions: Classification of States

  • Vladimir E. Fortov
Part of the Springer Series in Materials Science book series (SSMATERIALS, volume 216)


In this chapter we provide an insight into what is meant by “extreme states of matter”, define the “lower” and “upper” bounds, consider the conditions under which the matter exists at the centers of Solar System planets, the Sun and the stars, and in the relativistic collisions of heavy ions, as well as discuss the features of substance behavior with increase in pressure and temperature. We briefly outline the experimental techniques and facilities used to produce these states. Laboratory and quasi-laboratory techniques elaborated to date for generating high energy densities are described in more detail in the chapters that follow.


Black Hole Pair Production High Energy Density Giant Planet Relativistic Electron Beam 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vladimir E. Fortov
    • 1
  1. 1.Russian Academy of Sciences Joint Institute for High TemperaturesMoscowRussia

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