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Abstract

Pulp and paper mills are highly complex and integrate many different process areas including wood preparation, pulping, chemical recovery, bleaching, and papermaking to convert wood to the final product. Processing options and the type of wood processed are often determined by the final product.

The pulp for papermaking may be produced from virgin fibre by chemical or mechanical means or may be produced by the repulping of paper for recycling. Wood is the main original raw material. Paper for recycling accounts for about 50 % of the fibres used – but in a few cases straw, hemp, grass, cotton and other cellulose-bearing material can be used. Paper production is basically a two-step process in which a fibrous raw material is first converted into pulp, and then the pulp is converted into paper. The harvested wood is first processed so that the fibres are separated from the unusable fraction of the wood, the lignin. Pulp making can be done mechanically or chemically. The pulp is then bleached and further processed, depending on the type and grade of paper that is to be produced. In the paper factory, the pulp is dried and pressed to produce paper sheets. Post-use, an increasing fraction of paper and paper products is recycled. Non recycled paper is either landfilled or incinerated.

Keywords

Pulp and Paper industry Pulping Bleaching Papermaking Recycling Chemical recovery 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pratima Bajpai
    • 1
  1. 1.C-103 Thapar Centre for Industrial R&DConsultant (Pulp and Paper)PatialaIndia

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