Advertisement

Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease

  • Danya Reich
  • Corinna Eleni Psomadakis
  • Bobby Buka
Chapter

Abstract

Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is an enteroviral illness, typically of childhood, which causes painful vesicular lesions in the mouth, on the palms, and on the soles of the feet. HFMD is most commonly caused by coxsackievirus, though a more severe form can be caused by enterovirus 71. Typical HFMD is self-resolving within 7–10 days; however, physicians may provide supportive care and symptomatic relief in the form of oral anesthetics. After symptoms have resolved, patients may continue shedding viral particles for up to 5 weeks so contact precautions and good hygiene practices are recommended.

Keywords

Hand, foot, and mouth disease HFMD Coxsackie Enterovirus Coxsackievirus A6 A16 Enterovirus 71 Fecal–oral transmission Pediatric Vesicles Virus Prodromal symptoms Malaise Fever Symptomatic relief Self limiting 

References

  1. 1.
    Xing W, Liao Q, Viboud C, Zhang J, Sun J, Wu JT, Chang Z, Liu F, Fang VJ, Zheng Y, Cowling BJ, Varma JK, Farrar JJ, Leung GM, Yu H. Hand, foot, and mouth disease in China, 2008–12: an epidemiological study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2014;14(4):308–18.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Belazarian LT, Lorenzo ME, Pearson AL, Sweeney SM, Wiss K. Chapter 192. Exanthematous viral diseases. In: Goldsmith LA, Katz SI, Gilchrest BA, Paller AS, Leffell DJ, Wolff K, editors. Fitzpatrick’s dermatology in general medicine. 8th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2012. Available from: http://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com.ezproxy.cul.columbia.edu/content.aspx?bookid=392&Sectionid=41138921. Accessed 3 Mar 2015.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Repass GL, Palmer WC, Stancampiano FF. Hand, foot, and mouth disease: identifying and managing an acute viral syndrome. Cleve Clin J Med. 2014;81(9):537–43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Notes from the field: severe hand, foot, and mouth disease associated with coxsackievirus A6—Alabama, Connecticut, California, and Nevada, November 2011–February 2012. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2012;61(12):213–4.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Flett K, Youngster I, Huang J, McAdam A, Sandora TJ, Rennick M, Smole S, Rogers SL, Nix WA, Oberste MS, Gellis S, Ahmed AA. Hand, foot, and mouth disease caused by coxsackievirus a6. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(10):1702–4.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Downing C, Ramirez-Fort MK, Doan HQ, Benoist F, Oberste MS, Khan F, Tyring SK. Coxsackievirus A6 associated hand, foot and mouth disease in adults: clinical presentation and review of the literature. J Clin Virol. 2014;60(4):381–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Centers for Disease Control. Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). Transmission [Internet]. 2013 [cited 3 March 2015]. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/hand-foot-mouth/about/transmission.html
  8. 8.
    Kim EJ, Park HS, Yoon HS, Cho S. Four cases of onychomadesis after hand-foot-mouth disease. Ann Dermatol. 2014;26(6):777–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Open Access This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License, which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.

Authors and Affiliations

  • Danya Reich
    • 1
  • Corinna Eleni Psomadakis
    • 2
  • Bobby Buka
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Family MedicineMount Sinai School of Medicine Attending Mount Sinai Doctors/Beth Israel Medical Group-WilliamsburgBrooklynUSA
  2. 2.School of Medicine Imperial College LondonLondonUK
  3. 3.Department of DermatologyMount Sinai School of MedicineNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations