Advertisement

Urticaria

  • Danya Reich
  • Corinna Eleni Psomadakis
  • Bobby Buka
Chapter

Abstract

A 29-year-old woman visited the Primary Care clinic to receive treatment for a diffuse erythematous rash on her upper and lower extremities, and trunk. Urticaria, or hives, is a common condition that affects one in five people at some point in their lifetime. Urticaria can be triggered by a number of factors, including foods, medications, insect bites, pollen, pet dander, emotional stress, infections, and exposure to heat or cold. Urticaria is characterized by areas of localized edema (wheals) surrounded by erythema, and a blanchable, erythematous, pruritic rash. The rash migrates from one area of the body to another. Treatment of urticaria involves identifying and avoiding or treating the trigger, and providing symptomatic relief with oral antihistamines. Oral steroids may be used for patients who do not improve with use of antihistamines.

Keywords

Urticarial Exanthema Exanthem Hives Wheal Welt Histamine Inflammatory Inflammation Dermatographism Allergies Antihistamine Cetirizine 

References

  1. 1.
    American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Hives (Urticaria) [Internet]. 2015 [cited 2015 Jan 13]. Available from: http://acaai.org/allergies/types/skin-allergies/hives-urticaria
  2. 2.
    NHS Choices. Urticaria (hives) [Internet]. 2015 [cited 2015 Jan 13]. Available from: http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/Nettle-rash/Pages/Introduction.aspx
  3. 3.
    Kaplan AP. Chapter 38. Urticaria and angioedema. In: Goldsmith LA, Katz SI, Gilchrest BA, Paller AS, Leffell DJ, Wolff K, editors. Fitzpatrick’s dermatology in general medicine. 8th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2012. p. 414–30.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Zuberbier T, Aberer W, Asero R, Bindslev-Jensen C, Brzoza Z, Canonica GW, Church MK, Ensina LF, Giménez-Arnau A, Godse K, Gonçalo M, Grattan C, Hebert J, Hide M, Kaplan A, Kapp A, Abdul Latiff AH, Mathelier-Fusade P, Metz M, Nast A, Saini SS, Sánchez-Borges M, Schmid-Grendelmeier P, Simons FE, Staubach P, Sussman G, Toubi E, Vena GA, Wedi B, Zhu XJ, Maurer M. The EAACI/GA(2) LEN/EDF/WAO Guideline for the definition, classification, diagnosis, and management of urticaria: the 2013 revision and update. Allergy. 2014;69(7):868–87.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bernstein JA, Lang DM, Khan DA, Craig T, Dreyfus D, Hsieh F, Sheikh J, Weldon D, Zuraw B, Bernstein DI, Blessing-Moore J, Cox L, Nicklas RA, Oppenheimer J, Portnoy JM, Randolph CR, Schuller DE, Spector SL, Tilles SA, Wallace D. The diagnosis and management of acute and chronic urticare: 2014 update. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;133(5):1270–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mitchell S, Balp MM, Samuel M, McBride D, Maurer M. Systematic review of treatments for chronic spontaneous urticaria with inadequate response to licensed first-line treatments. Int J Dermatol. 2014. doi: 10.1111/ijd.12727.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Open Access This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License, which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.

Authors and Affiliations

  • Danya Reich
    • 1
  • Corinna Eleni Psomadakis
    • 2
  • Bobby Buka
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Family MedicineMount Sinai School of Medicine Attending Mount Sinai Doctors/Beth Israel Medical Group-WilliamsburgBrooklynUSA
  2. 2.School of Medicine Imperial College LondonLondonUK
  3. 3.Department of DermatologyMount Sinai School of MedicineNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations