Advertisement

Dharma and Distress: Buddhist Teachings that Support the Psychological Principles in a Mindfulness Program

  • Lynette M. MonteiroEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Mindfulness in Behavioral Health book series (MIBH)

Abstract

Contemporary mindfulness has emerged as a secular and clinical application in the treatment of psychological distress. The development of mindfulness-based interventions has been presented as grounded primarily in Western psychological concepts of personal distress, emotional dysregulation, and stress-related issues. The origins of mindfulness as a Buddhist practice, informed by Buddhist principles and psychology, while acknowledged as an historical source, have not been directly connected to mindfulness-based interventions. This chapter endeavors to connect relevant and important Buddhist teachings to elements of secular/clinical mindfulness programs with the intention of providing a deeper understanding of the principles that guide the cultivation of mindfulness so that the secular/clinical approach will be enriched. Key teachings such as the Anapanasati and Satipatthana Suttas are explored in detail; subtle teachings from the Theravada and Mahayana/Zen traditions are included to connect principles of Buddhist thought with a mindfulness-based program curriculum.

Keywords

Buddhism Mindfulness Suttas Sutras Theravada Zen Mahayana Mindfulness-based interventions Psychotherapy Dharma Satipatthana Anapanasati Metta Loving-kindness Koans Ox herding Mindfulness-based stress reduction 

References

  1. Aitken, R. (1991). The gateless barrier: The wu-men kuan. Berkeley: North Point Press.Google Scholar
  2. Analayo, B. (2003). Satipatthana: The direct path to realization. Birmingham: Windhorse Publications.Google Scholar
  3. Analayo, B. (2013). Perspectives on Satipatthana. Cambridge: Windhorse Publications.Google Scholar
  4. Arnold, G. S. (2004). Qian and her soul are separated. Mountain Record: The Zen Practitioner’s Journal, 22(2),17-22Google Scholar
  5. Aronson, H. B. (2004). Buddhist practice on Western ground. Boston: Shambhala.Google Scholar
  6. Baer, R. A. (2003). Mindfulness training as a clinical intervention: A conceptual and empirical review. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10, 125–143.Google Scholar
  7. Baer, R. A. (Ed.). (2005). Mindfulness-based treatment approaches. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  8. Baer, R. A. (2011). Measuring mindfulness. Contemporary Buddhism, 12(1), 241–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Baumeister, R. F. (2011). Self and identity: A brief overview of what they are, what they do, and how they work. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1234(1), 48–55. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2011.06224.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bodhi, B. (1995). The middle length discourses of the Buddha: A translation of the Majjhima Nikaya. Boston: Wisdom Publications.Google Scholar
  11. Bodhi, B. (2000). The connected discourses of the Buddha: A translation of the Samyutta Nikaya. Boston: Wisdom Publications.Google Scholar
  12. Bodhi, B. (2005). In the Buddha’s words: An anthology of discourses from the Pali canon. Boston: Wisdom Publications.Google Scholar
  13. Bodhi, B. (2008). The Noble Eightfold Path: The way to end suffering. Onalaska: BPS Pariyatti Editions.Google Scholar
  14. Boulanger, J. L., Hayes, S. C., & Pistorello, J. (2010). Experiential avoidance as a function of contextual concept. In A. M. Kring & D. M. Sloan (Eds.), Emotion regulation and psychopathology. New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  15. Bowen, S., & Kurz, A. (2012). Between-session practice and therapeutic alliance as predictors of mindfulness after mindfulness-based relapse prevention. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 68, 236–245.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Buddhadasa, B. (1976). Anapanasati: Mindfulness of breathing (B. Nagasena, Trans.). Bangkok: Sublime Life Mission.Google Scholar
  17. Buddhadasa, B. (2010). The Path of Purification (Visuddhimagga) (B. Nanamoli, Trans.). Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society.Google Scholar
  18. Caplow, F., & Moon, S. (Eds.). (2013). The hidden lamp: Stories from twenty-five centuries of awakened wisdom. Boston: Wisdom Publications.Google Scholar
  19. Carmody, J., & Baer, R. (2008). Relationships between mindfulness practice and leels of mindfulness, medical and psychological symptoms and well-being in a mindfulness-based stress reduction program. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 31, 23–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Cayoun, B. A. (2011). Mindfulness-integrated CBT: Principles and practice. Chicester: Wiley-Blackwell.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). (2011). Mental illness surveillance among adults in the United States. MMWR Surveillance Summary, 60(Suppl. 3), 1–29.Google Scholar
  22. Chodron, P. (2001). The places that scare you: A guide to fearlessness in difficult times. Boston: Shambhala Publications.Google Scholar
  23. Coffey, K. A., Hartman, M., & Fredrickson, B. L. (2010). Deconstructing mindfulness and constructing mental health: Understanding mindfulness and its mechanisms of action. Mindfulness, 1, 235–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Conze, E. (1958). Buddhist wisdom: The Diamond Sutra and the Heart Sutra. New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  25. Cowen, S., Chawla, N., & Marlatt, G. A. (2010). Mindfulness-based relapse prevention for addictive behaviors: A clinician’s guide. New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  26. Cullen, M. (2011). Mindfulness-based interventions: An emerging phenomenon. Mindfulness, 2, 186–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cusens, B., Duggan, G. B., Thorne, K., & Burch, V. (2010). Evaluation of the breathworks mindfulness‐based pain management programme: Effects on well‐being and multiple measures of mindfulness. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 17(1), 63–78. doi:10.1002/cpp.653.Google Scholar
  28. Davis, J. H., & Thompson, E. (2013). From the five aggregates to phenomenal consciousness: Towards a cross-cultural cognitive science. In S. M. Emmanuel (Ed.), A companion to Buddhist philosophy (pp. 585–598). Chichester: Wiley.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dobkin, P., Hickman, S., & Monshat, K. (2013). Holding the heart of mindfulness-based stress reduction: Balancing fidelity and imagination when adapting MBSR. Mindfulness. doi:10.1007/s12671-013-0225-7.Google Scholar
  30. Dunne, J. (2011). Toward an understanding of non-dual mindfulness. Contemporary Buddhism, 12(1), 71–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Eberth, J., & Sedlmeier, P. (2012). The effects of mindfulness meditation: A meta-analysis. Mindfulness, 3, 174–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ekman, P., & Davidson, R. J. (Eds.). (1994). The nature of emotion: Fundamental questions. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Fairholme, C., Boisseau, C. L., Ellard, K. K., Ehrenreich, J. T., & Barlow, D. H. (2010). Emotions, emotion regulation, and psychological treatment: A unified perspective. In A. M. Kring & D. M. Sloan (Eds.), Emotion regulation and psychopathology: A transdiagnostic approach to etiology and treatment. New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  34. Fjorback, L. O., Arendt, M., Ornbol, E., Fink, P., & Walach, H. (2011). Mindfulness-based stress reduction and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy—A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 124, 102–119.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Germer, C. K. (2009). The mindful path to self-compassion: Freeing yourself from destructive thoughts and emotions. New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  36. Germer, C. K., Siegel, R. D., & Fulton, P. R. (2013). Mindfulness and psychotherapy. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  37. Gethin, R. (1992/2001). The Buddhist path to awakening: A study of the bodhi-pakkhiya dhamma. Oxford: Oneworld.Google Scholar
  38. Gethin, R. (1998). The foundations of Buddhism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Gilbert, P. (2005). Compassion: Conceptualisations, research and use in psychotherapy: New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  40. Gilbert, P. (2009). The compassionate mind: A new approach to life’s challenges. London: Constable & Robinson.Google Scholar
  41. Goldstein, J. (2013). Mindfulness: A practical guide to awakening. Louisville: Sounds True.Google Scholar
  42. Gowans, C. (2003). The philosophy of the Buddha. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  43. Grabovac, A., Lau, M., & Willett, B. (2011). Mechanisms of mindfulness: A Buddhist psychological model. Mindfulness, 2(3), 154–166. doi:10.1007/s12671-011-0054-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Grossman, P., & Van Dam, N. (2011). Mindfulness, by any other name…: Trials and tribulations of sati in western psychology and science. Contemporary Buddhism, 12(1), 219–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Gunaratana, B. (2001). Eight mindful steps to happiness: Walking the Buddha’s path. Somerville: Wisdom Press.Google Scholar
  46. Gunaratana, B. (2012). The four foundations of mindfulness in plain English. Boston: Wisdom Publishers.Google Scholar
  47. Hanh, T. N. (1998). The heart of the Buddha’s teaching. Berkeley: Parallax Press.Google Scholar
  48. Hanh, T. N. (2005). Interbeing: Fourteen guidelines for engaged Buddhism. Berkeley: Parallax Press.Google Scholar
  49. Hanh, T. N. (2006). Transformation and healing: The sutra on the four foundations of mindfulness. Berkeley: Parallax Press.Google Scholar
  50. Hanh, T. N. (2007). For a future to be possible: Buddhist ethics for everyday life. Berkeley: Parallax Press.Google Scholar
  51. Hanh, T. N. (2009a). Breathe, you are alive! Sutra on the full awareness of breathing. Berkeley: Parallax Press.Google Scholar
  52. Hanh, T. N. (2009b). The heart of understanding: Commentaries on the Prajnaparamita Heart Sutra. Berkeley: Parallax Press.Google Scholar
  53. Hanh, T. N. (2010). The diamond that cuts through illusion. Berkeley: Parallax Press.Google Scholar
  54. Hanh, T. N. (2011). Our appointment with life: Sutra on knowing the better way to live alone. Berkley: Parallax Press.Google Scholar
  55. Harvey, P. (2000). An introduction to Buddhist ethics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Harvey, P. (2013a). The conditioned co-arising of mental and bodily processes within life and between lives. In S. M. Emmanuel (Ed.), A companion to Buddhist philosophy. Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
  57. Harvey, P. (2013b). Dukkha, non-self, and the teaching on the four “Noble Truths”. In S. M. Emmanuel (Ed.), A companion to Buddhist philosophy (pp. 26–25). Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
  58. Harvey, P. (2013c). An introduction to Buddhism: Teachings, history and practices (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  59. Hickman, S., Monteiro, L., & Goldstein, A. (2012). Holding the heart of MBSR: Reflection, collaboration and dialogue on modification or adaptation of the 8-week program. Paper presented at the ‎Investigating and Integrating Mindfulness in Medicine, Health Care, and Society 10th Annual International Scientific Conference for Clinicians, Researchers and Educators, Norwood, MA.Google Scholar
  60. Hori, V. S. (2006). The steps of koan practice. In J. D. Loori (Ed.), Sitting with koans. Somerville: Dharma Communications Press.Google Scholar
  61. Jacobs, A. M., Hopton, J., Davies, D., Wright, N. P., Kelly, O. P., & Turkington, D. (2014). Treating psychosis: A clinician’s guide to integrating acceptance and commitment therapy, compassion-focused therapy, and mindfulness approaches within the cognitive behavioral therapy tradition. Oakland: New Harbinger Publications.Google Scholar
  62. Kabat-Zinn, J. (2003). Mindfulness-based interventions in context. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10, 144–156.Google Scholar
  63. Kabat-Zinn, J. (2011). Some reflections on the origins of MBSR, skillful means, and the trouble with maps. Contemporary Buddhism, 12(1), 281–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kabat-Zinn, J. (2013). Full catastrophe living: Using the wisdom of your body and mind to face stress, pain, and illness. New York: Bantam.Google Scholar
  65. Kabat-Zinn, J., Lipworth, L., Birney, R., & Sellers, W. (1987). Four-year follow-up of a mediation-based program for the self-regulation of chronic pain: Treatment outcomes and compliance. The Clinical Journal of Pain, 2, 159–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kapleau, P. (1980). The three pillars of Zen. New York: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  67. Kazdin, A. E., & Blase, S. L. (2011). Rebooting psychotherapy research and practice to reduce the burden of mental illness. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 6(1), 21–37.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Keown, D. (2005). Buddhist ethics: A very short introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Kuyken, W., Byford, S., Taylor, R., Watkins, E., Holden, E., White, K., et al. (2008). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy to prevent relapse in recurrent depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76(6), 966–978.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Langer, E. (1990). Mindfulness. Cambridge: Perseus Books.Google Scholar
  71. Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  72. Loori, J. D. (2002). Riding the ox home: Stages on the path of enlightenment. Boston: Shambhala.Google Scholar
  73. Loori, J. D. (2006a). Introduction. In J. D. Loori (Ed.), Sitting with koans. Somerville: Dharma Communications Press.Google Scholar
  74. Loori, J. D. (Ed.). (2006b). Sitting with koans. Boston: Wisdom Publications.Google Scholar
  75. Maex, E. (2011). The Buddhist roots of mindfulness training: A practitioner’s view. Contemporary Buddhism, 12(1), 165–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Marcus, M., Yasamy, M. T., van Ommeren, M., Chisholm, D., & Saxena, S. (2012). Depression: A global public health concern. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  77. Markowitz, F. (2001). Modeling processes in recovery from mental illness: Relationships between symptoms, life satisfaction, and self-concept. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 41(1), 64–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. McCown, D. (2013). The ethical space of mindfulness in clinical practice: An exploratory essay. Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.Google Scholar
  79. McEwen, B. S. (2002). The end of stress as we know it. Washington, D.C.: Joseph Henry Press.Google Scholar
  80. McMahan, D. (2008). The making of Buddhist modernism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  81. Mills, E. (2004). Cultivation of moral concern in Therav¯ada Buddhism: Toward a theory of the relation between tranquility and insight. Journal of Buddhist Ethics, 11. 20-45.Google Scholar
  82. Monteiro, L., & Musten, R. F. (2013). Mindfulness starts here: An 8-week guide to skillful living. Victoria: Friesen Press.Google Scholar
  83. Monteiro, L., Nuttall, S., & Musten, R. F. (2010). Five skillful habits: An ethics-based mindfulness intervention. Counselling and Spirituality, 29(1), 91–103.Google Scholar
  84. Monteiro, L., Musten, R. F., & Compson, J. (2014). Traditional and contemporary mindfulness: Finding the middle path in the tangle of concerns. Mindfulness. doi:10.1007/s12671-014-0301-7Google Scholar
  85. Neff, K. (2011). Self-compassion: Stop beating yourself up and leave insecurity behind. New York: William Morrow.Google Scholar
  86. Pescosolido, B. A. (2013). The public stigma of mental illness: What do we think, what can we know, what can we prove? Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 54(1). doi:10.1177/0022146512471197.Google Scholar
  87. Piet, J., & Hougaard, E. (2011). The effect of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for prevention of relapse in recurrent major depressive disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 31(6), 1032–1040.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Pine, R. (2001). The diamond sutra. Berkeley: Counterpoint Press.Google Scholar
  89. Pine, R. (2011). P’u Mindg’s oxherding pictures & verses. New York: Empty Bowl.Google Scholar
  90. Porges, S. (2007). The Polyvagal perspective. Biological Psychology, 74(2), 116–143.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Porges, S. (2011). The Polyvagal Theory: Neurophysiological foundations of emotions, attachment, communication, and self-regulation. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.Google Scholar
  92. Purser, R., & Loy, D. (2013). Beyond McMindfulness. Huffington post. Retrieved from: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/ron-purser/beyond-mcmindfulness_b_3519289.html. Website: http://www.huffingtonpost.com. Accessed 15 July 2013.
  93. Rahula, W. (1978). Zen and the taming of the bull: Towards a definition of Buddhist thought. London: Gordon Fraser.Google Scholar
  94. Sahn, S. (1997). The compass of Zen. Boston: Shambhala.Google Scholar
  95. Salzberg, S. (2002). Lovingkindness: The revolutionary art of happiness. Boston: Shambhala.Google Scholar
  96. Segal, Z. V., Williams, J. M., & Teasdale, J. D. (2012). Mindfulness based cognitive therapy for the prevention of depression relapse (2nd edn.). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  97. Seyle, H. (1974). Stress without distress. Toronto: HarperCollins.Google Scholar
  98. Shapiro, S., & Carlson, L. E. (2009a). The art and science of mindfulness: Integrating mindfulness into psychology and the helping professions: Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Shapiro, S., & Carlson, L. E. (2009b). How is mindfulness helpful? Mechanisms of action The art and science of mindfulness: Integrating mindfulness into psychology and the helping professions (pp. 93–104). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Sharf, R. (2013). Mindfulness or mindlessness: Traditional and modern critiques of “Bare Awareness”. Paper presented at the conference on Mindfulness in Cultural Context, McGill University, Montreal, QC.Google Scholar
  101. Shibayama, Z. (2000). The gateless barrier: Zen comments on the Mumokan (S. Kudo, Trans.). Boston: Shambhala Publications.Google Scholar
  102. Silananda, V. U. (2002). The four foundations of mindfulness. Boston: Wisdom Publishers.Google Scholar
  103. Soeng, M. (2006). Zen koan and mental health: The art of not deceiving yourself. In D. K. Nauriyal, M. S. Drummond & Y. B. Lal (Eds.), Buddhist thought and applied psychological research: Transcending the boundaries. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  104. Tamura, Y. (2014). Introduction to the Lotus Sutra. Boston: Wisdom Publications.Google Scholar
  105. Tanahashi, K. (Ed.). (1985). Moon in a dewdrop: Writings of Zen master Dogen. New York: North Point Press.Google Scholar
  106. Teasdale, J., Segal, Z. V., Williams, M., Ridgeway, V. A., Soulsby, J. M., & Lau, M. (2000). Prevention of relapse/recurrence in major depression by mindfulness-based cognitive therapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 615–623.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Tekin, Ş. (2011). Self-concept through the diagnostic looking glass: Narratives and mental disorder. Philosophical Psychology, 24(3), 357–380. doi:10.1080/09515089.2011.559622.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Thanissaro, B. (2012). Right mindfulness: Memory and ardency on the Buddhist path.http://www.holybooks.com/right-mindfulness-memory-ardency-on-the-buddhist-path/. Accessed 3 September 2012.
  109. Thoits, P. A. (2013). Self, identity, stress, and mental health. In C. Aneshensel, J. Phelan & A. Bierman (Eds.), Handbook of the sociology of mental health (pp. 357–377). Netherlands: Springer.Google Scholar
  110. Titmuss, C. (2013). The Buddha of mindfulness. The politics of mindfulness. Retrieved from: http://christophertitmuss.org/blog/?p=1454. Website: http://www.christophertitmuss.org. Accessed 22 July 2013
  111. Tuske, J. (2013). The non-self theory and problems inphilosophy of mind. In S. M. Emmanuel (Ed.), A companion to Buddhist philosophy. Chicehester: Wiley.Google Scholar
  112. Vøllestad, J., Sivertsen, B., & Nielsen, G. H. (2011). Mindfulness-based stress reduction for patients with anxiety disorders: Evaluation in a randomized controlled trial. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 49, 281–288.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Whyte, D. (2001). Crossing the unknown sea: Work as a pilgrimage of identity. New York: Riverhead Books.Google Scholar
  114. Williams, J. M., & Kabat-Zinn, J. (2013). Mindfulness: Diverse perspectives on its meaning, origins and applications. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  115. Wyatt, C., Harper, B., & Weatherhead, S. (2014). The experience of group mindfulness-based interventions for individuals with mental health difficulties: A meta-synthesis. Psychotherapy Research, 24(2), 214–228.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Yamada, K. (2005). The gateless gate: The classic book of Zen koans. Boston: Wisdom Publications.Google Scholar
  117. Young, S. (2011). Five ways to know yourself. Retrieved from: http://www.shinzen.org/RetreatReading/FiveWays.pdf. Website: http://www.shinzenyoung.org. Accessed 23 September 2014.

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Ottawa Mindfulness ClinicOttawaCanada

Personalised recommendations