Radiological Gastrointestinal Interventions in Childhood; A Review

  • K. P. van LiendenEmail author
  • R. R. van Rijn
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)


Interventional radiology in children has expanded progressively over the recent years. This chapter outlines the more commonly performed procedures, describing the indications, imaging highlights and technical aspects of such pediatric gastrointestinal interventions.


Balloon Dilatation Core Needle Biopsy Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Transcatheter Arterial Embolization Gastrostomy Tube 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Alderliesten J, Conchillo JM, Leeuwenburgh I, Steyerberg EW, Kuipers EJ (2011) Predictors for outcome of failure of balloon dilatation in patients with achalasia. Gut 60(1):10–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Sedation and Analgesia by Non-Anesthesiologists (2002) Practice guidelines for sedation and analgesia by non-anesthesiologists. Anesthesiology 96(4):1004–1017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Antoniou D, Soutis M, Christopoulos-Geroulanos G (2010) Anastomotic strictures following esophageal atresia repair: a 20-year experience with endoscopic balloon dilatation. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 51(4):464–467PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bani-Hani AH, Cain MP, Kaefer M, Meldrum KK, King S, Johnson CS, Rink RC (2008) The Malone antegrade continence enema: single institutional review. J Urol 180(3):1106–1110PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bansal S, Karrer FM, Hansen K, Partrick DA (2015) Contrast blush in pediatric blunt splenic trauma does not warrant the routine use of angiography and embolization. Am J Surg. doi: 10.1016/j.amjsurg.2014.09.028 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Becmeur F, Demarche M, Lacreuse I, Molinaro F, Kauffmann I, Moog R, Donnars F, Rebeuh J (2008) Cecostomy button for antegrade enemas: survey of 29 patients. J Pediatr Surg 43(10):1853–1857PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Beebe DS, Tran P, Bragg M, Stillman A, Truwitt C, Belani KG (2000) Trained nurses can provide safe and effective sedation for MRI in pediatric patients. Can J Anaesth 47(3):205–210PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Blomberg J, Lagergren P, Martin L, Mattsson F, Lagergren J (2010) Novel approach to antibiotic prophylaxis in percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG): randomised controlled trial. BMJ 341:c3115. doi: 10.1136/bmj.c3115 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Boeckxstaens GE, Annese V, des Varannes SB, Chaussade S, Costantini M, Cuttitta A, Elizalde JI, Fumagalli U, Gaudric M, Rohof WO, Smout AJ, Tack J, Zwinderman AH, Zaninotto G, Busch OR (2011) Pneumatic dilation versus laparoscopic Heller’s myotomy for idiopathic achalasia. N Engl J Med 364(19):1807–1816PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cahill AM, Baskin KM, Kaye RD, Fitz CR, Towbin RB (2005) Transgluteal approach for draining pelvic fluid collections in pediatric patients. Radiology 234(3):893–898. doi: 10.1148/radiol.2343031804 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cascio S, Flett ME, De la Hunt M, Barrett AM, Jaffray B (2004) MACE or caecostomy button for idiopathic constipation in children: a comparison of complications and outcomes. Pediatr Surg Int 20(7):484–487PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chait PG, Weinberg J, Connolly BL, Pencharz P, Richards H, Clift JE, Savoie S, Harrison D (1996) Retrograde percutaneous gastrostomy and gastrojejunostomy in 505 children: a 4 1/2-year experience. Radiology 201(3):691–695. doi: 10.1148/radiology.201.3.8939217 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chait PG, Shandling B, Richards HF (1997a) The cecostomy button. J Pediatr Surg 32(6):849–851PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chait PG, Shandling B, Richards HM, Connolly BL (1997b) Fecal incontinence in children: treatment with percutaneous cecostomy tube placement – a prospective study. Radiology 203(3):621–624PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chait PG, Shlomovitz E, Connolly BL, Temple MJ, Restrepo R, Amaral JG, Muraca S, Richards HF, Ein SH (2003) Percutaneous cecostomy: updates in technique and patient care. Radiology 227(1):246–250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cheung YC, Wan YL, Lui KW, Lee KF (2000) Sonographically guided core-needle biopsy in the diagnosis of superficial lymphadenopathy. J Clin Ultrasound 28(6):283–289PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chittmittrapap S, Spitz L, Kiely EM, Brereton RJ (1990) Anastomotic stricture following repair of esophageal atresia. J Pediatr Surg 25(5):508–511PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Christensen R (2001) Invasive radiology for pediatric trauma. Semin Pediatr Surg 10(1):7–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Connolly BL, Chait PG, Siva-Nandan R, Duncan D, Peer M (1998) Recognition of intussusception around gastrojejunostomy tubes in children. AJR Am J Roentgenol 170(2):467–470PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cory DA, Fitzgerald JF, Cohen MD (1988) Percutaneous nonendoscopic gastrostomy in children. AJR Am J Roentgenol 151(5):995–997PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cwikiel W (2002) Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt. Acta Paediatr 91(4):374–375PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cwikiel W, Keussen I, Larsson L, Solvig J, Kullendorff CM (2003) Interventional treatment of children with portal hypertension secondary to portal vein occlusion. Eur J Pediatr Surg 13(5):312–318PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dewald CL, Hiette PO, Sewall LE, Fredenberg PG, Palestrant AM (1999) Percutaneous gastrostomy and gastrojejunostomy with gastropexy: experience in 701 procedures. Radiology 211(3):651–656PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dey R, Ferguson C, Kenny SE, Shankar KR, Coldicutt P, Baillie CT, Lamont GL, Lloyd DA, Losty PD, Turnock RR (2003) After the honeymoon – medium-term outcome of antegrade continence enema procedure. J Pediatr Surg 38(1):65–68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Di Giorgio A, Agazzi R, Alberti D, Colledan M, D’Antiga L (2012) Feasibility and efficacy of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) in children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 54(5):594–600. doi: 10.1097/MPG.0b013e3182490c05 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Di NG, Rossi P, Oliva S, Aloi M, Cozzi DA, Frediani S, Redler A, Mallardo S, Ferrari F, Cucchiara S (2012) Pneumatic balloon dilation in pediatric achalasia: efficacy and factors predicting outcome at a single tertiary pediatric gastroenterology center. Gastrointest Endosc 76(5):927–932CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Diament MJ, Boechat MI, Kangarloo H (1985) Interventional radiology in infants and children: clinical and technical aspects. Radiology 154(2):359–361PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dondelinger RF, Trotteur G, Ghaye B, Szapiro D (2002) Traumatic injuries: radiological hemostatic intervention at admission. Eur Radiol 12(5):979–993. doi: 10.1007/s00330-002-1427-x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Doo EY, Shin JH, Kim JH, Song HY (2009) Oesophageal strictures caused by the ingestion of corrosive agents: effectiveness of balloon dilatation in children. Clin Radiol 64(3):265–271PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Duszak RL Jr, Levy JM, Akins EW, Bakal CW, Denny DD Jr, Martin LG, Van Moore A Jr, Pentecost MJ, Roberts AC, Vogelzang RL, Kent KC, Perler BA, Resnick MI, Richie J, Priest E 2nd (2000) Percutaneous catheter drainage of infected intra-abdominal fluid collections. American College of Radiology. ACR appropriateness criteria. Radiology 215 Suppl:1067–1075PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Ekmark E, Adams RC (2000) The antegrade continence enema (ACE) surgical procedure: patient selection, outcomes, long-term patient management. Eur J Pediatr Surg 10(Suppl 1):49–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Erdogan E, Eroglu E, Tekant G, Yeker Y, Emir H, Sarimurat N, Yeker D (2003) Management of esophagogastric corrosive injuries in children. Eur J Pediatr Surg 13(5):289–293PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fasulakis S, Andronikou S (2003) Balloon dilatation in children for oesophageal strictures other than those due to primary repair of oesophageal atresia, interposition or restrictive fundoplication. Pediatr Radiol 33(10):682–687PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fortunato JE, Darbari A, Mitchell SE, Thompson RE, Cuffari C (2005) The limitations of gastro-jejunal (G-J) feeding tubes in children: a 9-year pediatric hospital database analysis. Am J Gastroenterol 100(1):186–189. doi: 10.1111/j.1572-0241.2005.40893.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Freedman AM, Sanyal AJ, Tisnado J, Cole PE, Shiffman ML, Luketic VA, Purdum PP, Darcy MD, Posner MP (1993) Complications of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt: a comprehensive review. Radiographics 13(6):1185–1210PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Garcia-Villarreal L, Martinez-Lagares F, Sierra A, Guevara C, Marrero JM, Jimenez E, Monescillo A, Hernandez-Cabrero T, Alonso JM, Fuentes R (1999) Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt versus endoscopic sclerotherapy for the prevention of variceal rebleeding after recent variceal hemorrhage. Hepatology 29(1):27–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gervais DA, Brown SD, Connolly SA, Brec SL, Harisinghani MG, Mueller PR (2004) Percutaneous imaging-guided abdominal and pelvic abscess drainage in children. Radiographics 24(3):737–754. doi: 10.1148/rg.243035107 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gideon RM, Castell DO, Yarze J (1999) Prospective randomized comparison of pneumatic dilatation technique in patients with idiopathic achalasia. Dig Dis Sci 44(9):1853–1857PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Goffette PP, Laterre PF (2002) Traumatic injuries: imaging and intervention in post-traumatic complications (delayed intervention). Eur Radiol 12(5):994–1021. doi: 10.1007/s00330-002-1396-0 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Graf JL, Strear C, Bratton B, Housley HT, Jennings RW, Harrison MR, Albanese CT (1998) The antegrade continence enema procedure: a review of the literature. J Pediatr Surg 33(8):1294–1296PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Griffiths DM, Malone PS (1995) The Malone antegrade continence enema. J Pediatr Surg 30(1):68–71PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Guelrud M, Mendoza S, Jaen D, Plaz J, Machuca J, Torres P (1992) ERCP and endoscopic sphincterotomy in infants and children with jaundice due to common bile duct stones. Gastrointest Endosc 38(4):450–453PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Guo Z, Kurtycz DF, Salem R, De Las Casas LE, Caya JG, Hoerl HD (2002) Radiologically guided percutaneous fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the liver: retrospective study of 119 cases evaluating diagnostic effectiveness and clinical complications. Diagn Cytopathol 26(5):283–289PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hagiwara A, Fukushima H, Murata A, Matsuda H, Shimazaki S (2005) Blunt splenic injury: usefulness of transcatheter arterial embolization in patients with a transient response to fluid resuscitation. Radiology 235(1):57–64. doi: 10.1148/radiol.2351031132 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hammond PD, Moore DJ, Davidson GP, Davies RP (1997) Tandem balloon dilatation for childhood achalasia. Pediatr Radiol 27(7):609–613PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hamza AF, Abdelhay S, Sherif H, Hasan T, Soliman H, Kabesh A, Bassiouny I, Bahnassy AF (2003) Caustic esophageal strictures in children: 30 years’ experience. J Pediatr Surg 38(6):828–833PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Heyman MB, LaBerge JM (1999) Role of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in the treatment of portal hypertension in pediatric patients. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 29(3):240–249PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Heyman MB, LaBerge JM, Somberg KA, Rosenthal P, Mudge C, Ring EJ, Snyder JD (1997) Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS) in children. J Pediatr 131(6):914–919PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hishiki T, Kouchi K, Saito T, Terui K, Sato Y, Mitsunaga T, Nakata M, Yoshida H (2009) Successful treatment of severe refractory anastomotic stricture in an infant after esophageal atresia repair by endoscopic balloon dilation combined with systemic administration of dexamethasone. Pediatr Surg Int 25(6):531–533PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hoekstra LT, Kuijper CF, Bakx R, Heij HA, Aronson DC, Benninga MA (2011) The Malone antegrade continence enema procedure: the Amsterdam experience. J Pediatr Surg 46(8):1603–1608PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hoffer FA (1997) Interventional radiology in the acute pediatric abdomen. Radiol Clin North Am 35(4):977–987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Hoffer FA (2000) Liver biopsy methods for pediatric oncology patients. Pediatr Radiol 30(7):481–488PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Huang YC, Ni YH, Lai HS, Chang MH (2004) Corrosive esophagitis in children. Pediatr Surg Int 20(3):207–210PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hubbard AM, Fellows KE (1993) Pediatric interventional radiology: current practice and innovations. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 16(5):267–274PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Huppert PE, Astfalk W, Brambs HJ, Schweizer P, Schott U, Pereira P, Duda SH, Dopfer RE, Claussen CD (1998) Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in children. Initial clinical experiences and literature review. Rofo 168(6):595–603PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Jamieson DH, Chait PG, Filler R (1997) Interventional drainage of appendiceal abscesses in children. AJR Am J Roentgenol 169(6):1619–1622. doi: 10.2214/ajr.169.6.9393176 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Jayakrishnan VK, Wilkinson AG (2001) Treatment of oesophageal strictures in children: a comparison of fluoroscopically guided balloon dilatation with surgical bouginage. Pediatr Radiol 31(2):98–101PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kaye RD, Towbin RB (2002) Imaging and intervention in the gastrointestinal tract in children. Gastroenterol Clin North Am 31(3):897–923, viiiPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kaye RD, Sane SS, Towbin RB (2000) Pediatric intervention: an update – part I. J Vasc Interv Radiol 11(6):683–697PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Khan AA, Shah SW, Alam A, Butt AK, Shafqat F (2002) Efficacy of Rigiflex balloon dilatation in 12 children with achalasia: a 6-month prospective study showing weight gain and symptomatic improvement. Dis Esophagus 15(2):167–170PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Kim IO, Yeon KM, Kim WS, Park KW, Kim JH, Han MC (1993) Perforation complicating balloon dilation of esophageal strictures in infants and children. Radiology 189(3):741–744PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kogan A, Katz J, Efrat R, Eidelman LA (2002) Premedication with midazolam in young children: a comparison of four routes of administration. Paediatr Anaesth 12(8):685–689PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Krishna RP, Lal R, Sikora SS, Yachha SK, Pal L (2008) Unusual causes of extrahepatic biliary obstruction in children: a case series with review of literature. Pediatr Surg Int 24(2):183–190. doi: 10.1007/s00383-007-2087-3 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kushimoto S, Arai M, Aiboshi J, Harada N, Tosaka N, Koido Y, Yoshida R, Yamamoto Y, Kumazaki T (2003) The role of interventional radiology in patients requiring damage control laparotomy. J Trauma 54(1):171–176PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Lang EK, Springer RM, Glorioso LW III, Cammarata CA (1986) Abdominal abscess drainage under radiologic guidance: causes of failure. Radiology 159(2):329–336PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Lang T, Hummer HP, Behrens R (2001) Balloon dilation is preferable to bougienage in children with esophageal atresia. Endoscopy 33(4):329–335PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Lee CW, Kays DW, Chen MK, Islam S (2010) Outcomes of treatment of childhood achalasia. J Pediatr Surg 45(6):1173–1177PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Lee AY, Gregorius J, Kerlan RK Jr, Gordon RL, Fidelman N (2012) Percutaneous transhepatic balloon dilation of biliary-enteric anastomotic strictures after surgical repair of iatrogenic bile duct injuries. PLoS One 7(10):e46478. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0046478 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Lee YH, Wu CH, Wang LJ, Wong YC, Chen HW, Wang CJ, Lin BC, Hsu YP (2014) Predictive factors for early failure of transarterial embolization in blunt hepatic injury patients. Clin Radiol 69(12):e505–e511. doi: 10.1016/j.crad.2014.08.013 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Lendvay TS, Shnorhavorian M, Grady RW (2008) Robotic-assisted laparoscopic mitrofanoff appendicovesicostomy and antegrade continent enema colon tube creation in a pediatric spina bifida patient. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A 18(2):310–312PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Lieberman S, Libson E, Maly B, Lebensart P, Ben-Yehuda D, Bloom AI (2003) Imaging-guided percutaneous splenic biopsy using a 20- or 22-gauge cutting-edge core biopsy needle for the diagnosis of malignant lymphoma. AJR Am J Roentgenol 181(4):1025–1027PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Lisy J, Hetkova M, Snajdauf J, Vyhnanek M, Tuma S (1998) Long-term outcomes of balloon dilation of esophageal strictures in children. Acad Radiol 5(12):832–835PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Ljungman G, Kreuger A, Andreasson S, Gordh T, Sorensen S (2000) Midazolam nasal spray reduces procedural anxiety in children. Pediatrics 105(1 Pt 1):73–78PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. London RL, Trotman BW, DiMarino AJ Jr, Oleaga JA, Freiman DB, Ring EJ, Rosato EF (1981) Dilatation of severe esophageal strictures by an inflatable balloon catheter. Gastroenterology 80(1):173–175PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Lorenz JM (2008) Placement of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts in children. Tech Vasc Interv Radiol 11(4):235–240. doi: 10.1053/j.tvir.2009.04.007 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Lorenz JM, Leef JA, Chou CH, Funaki B, Straus CM, Rosenblum JD (2001) Sonographic needle guidance in cholangiography in children. J Vasc Interv Radiol 12(3):342–346PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Maher MM, Gervais DA, Kalra MK, Lucey B, Sahani DV, Arellano R, Hahn PF, Mueller PR (2004) The inaccessible or undrainable abscess: how to drain it. Radiographics 24(3):717–735PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Malone PS, Ransley PG, Kiely EM (1990) Preliminary report: the antegrade continence enema. Lancet 336(8725):1217–1218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. McDaniel JD, Warren MT, Pence JC, Ey EH (2015) Ultrasound-guided transrectal drainage of deep pelvic abscesses in children: a modified and simplified technique. Pediatr Radiol 45(3):435–438. doi: 10.1007/s00247-014-3154-2 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. McIlwain M, Primosch R, Bimstein E (2004) Allergic reaction to intranasal midazolam HCl: a case report. Pediatr Dent 26(4):359–361PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. McLean GK, LeVeen RF (1989) Shear stress in the performance of esophageal dilation: comparison of balloon dilation and bougienage. Radiology 172(3 Pt 2):983–986PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. McSweeney ME, Kerr J, Jiang H, Lightdale JR (2015) Risk factors for complications in infants and children with percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tubes. J Pediatr 166(6):1514–1519. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2015.03.009, e1511PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Miller PR, Chang MC, Hoth JJ, Mowery NT, Hildreth AN, Martin RS, Holmes JH, Meredith JW, Requarth JA (2014) Prospective trial of angiography and embolization for all grade III to V blunt splenic injuries: nonoperative management success rate is significantly improved. J Am Coll Surg 218(4):644–648. doi: 10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2014.01.040 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Morikawa N, Honna T, Kuroda T, Watanabe K, Tanaka H, Takayasu H, Fujino A, Tanemura H, Matsukubo M (2008) High dose intravenous methylprednisolone resolves esophageal stricture resistant to balloon dilatation with intralesional injection of dexamethasone. Pediatr Surg Int 24(10):1161–1164PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Muraca S, Chait PG, Connolly BL, Baskin KM, Temple MJ (2001) US-guided core biopsy of the spleen in children. Radiology 218(1):200–206PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Naehrlich L, Lang T, Schamberger U, Behrens R (2000) Balloon dilation of an esophageal stenosis in a patient with recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa. Pediatr Dermatol 17(6):477–479PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Nobili V, Comparcola D, Sartorelli MR, Natali G, Monti L, Falappa P, Marcellini M (2003) Blind and ultrasound-guided percutaneous liver biopsy in children. Pediatr Radiol 33(11):772–775PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Norman J (2001) Practical pediatric interventional radiology. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol 30(3):61–86PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Ohtsuka Y, Iwasaki K, Okazumi S, Yoshida H, Matsunaga T, Kouchi K, Okada T, Ohnuma N (2003) Management of blunt hepatic injury in children: usefulness of emergency transcatheter arterial embolization. Pediatr Surg Int 19(1–2):29–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Pastor AC, Pastor AC, Mills J, Marcon MA, Himidan S, Kim PC (2009) A single center 26-year experience with treatment of esophageal achalasia: is there an optimal method? J Pediatr Surg 44(7):1349–1354PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Pomier-Layrargues G, Villeneuve JP, Deschenes M, Bui B, Perreault P, Fenyves D, Willems B, Marleau D, Bilodeau M, Lafortune M, Dufresne MP (2001) Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) versus endoscopic variceal ligation in the prevention of variceal rebleeding in patients with cirrhosis: a randomised trial. Gut 48(3):390–396PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Rajindrajith S, Devanarayana NM, Benninga MA (2013) Review article: faecal incontinence in children: epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical evaluation and management. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 37(1):37–48PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Reeves ST, Havidich JE, Tobin DP (2004) Conscious sedation of children with propofol is anything but conscious. Pediatrics 114(1):e74–e76PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Rivera MT, Kugathasan S, Berger W, Werlin SL (2001) Percutaneous colonoscopic cecostomy for management of chronic constipation in children. Gastrointest Endosc 53(2):225–228PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Roebuck DJ, Stanley P (2000) External and internal-external biliary drainage in children with malignant obstructive jaundice. Pediatr Radiol 30(10):659–664PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Rosch J, Hanafee WN, Snow H (1969) Transjugular portal venography and radiologic portacaval shunt: an experimental study. Radiology 92(5):1112–1114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Rose SC, Andre MP, Roberts AC, Kinney TB, Valji K, Ronaghi AH, Hassanein TI, Lavine JE, Hart ME, Khanna A (2001) Integral role of interventional radiology in the development of a pediatric liver transplantation program. Pediatr Transplant 5(5):331–338PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Rubin JT, Towbin RB, Bartko M, Baskin KM, Cahill AM, Kaye RD (2004) Oral and intravenous caffeine for treatment of children with post-sedation paradoxical hyperactivity. Pediatr Radiol 34(12):980–984PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Saadeddin A, Freshwater DA, Fisher NC, Jones BJ (2005) Antibiotic prophylaxis for percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy for non-malignant conditions: a double-blind prospective randomized controlled trial. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 22(6):565–570. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2036.2005.02578.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Saarinen UM, Wikstrom S, Koskimies O, Sariola H (1991) Percutaneous needle biopsy preceding preoperative chemotherapy in the management of massive renal tumors in children. J Clin Oncol 9(3):406–415PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Safrit HD, Mauro MA, Jaques PF (1987) Percutaneous abscess drainage in Crohn’s disease. AJR Am J Roentgenol 148(5):859–862PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Said M, Mekki M, Golli M, Memmi F, Hafsa C, Braham R, Belguith M, Letaief M, Gahbiche M, Nouri A, Ganouni A (2003) Balloon dilatation of anastomotic strictures secondary to surgical repair of oesophageal atresia. Br J Radiol 76(901):26–31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Sandgren K, Malmfors G (1998) Balloon dilatation of oesophageal strictures in children. Eur J Pediatr Surg 8(1):9–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Sato Y, Frey EE, Smith WL, Pringle KC, Soper RT, Franken EA Jr (1988) Balloon dilatation of esophageal stenosis in children. AJR Am J Roentgenol 150(3):639–642PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Scheimann AO, Barrios JM, Al-Tawil YS, Gray KM, Gilger MA (2000) Percutaneous liver biopsy in children: impact of ultrasonography and spring-loaded biopsy needles. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 31(5):536–539PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Searles JM, Roberts JP, MacKinnon AE (2000) The ACE procedure – problems behind the success. Eur J Pediatr Surg 10(Suppl 1):51–52PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Sebire NJ, Roebuck DJ (2006) Pathological diagnosis of paediatric tumours from image-guided needle core biopsies: a systematic review. Pediatr Radiol 36(5):426–431. doi: 10.1007/s00247-006-0123-4 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Shandling B, Chait PG, Richards HF (1996) Percutaneous cecostomy: a new technique in the management of fecal incontinence. J Pediatr Surg 31(4):534–537PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Shiffman ML, Jeffers L, Hoofnagle JH, Tralka TS (1995) The role of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt for treatment of portal hypertension and its complications: a conference sponsored by the National Digestive Diseases Advisory Board. Hepatology 22(5):1591–1597PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Sierre S, Lipsich J, Questa H, Bailez M, Solana J (2007) Percutaneous cecostomy for management of fecal incontinence in pediatric patients. J Vasc Interv Radiol 18(8):982–985PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Sklair-Levy M, Lebensart PD, Applbaum YH, Ramu N, Freeman A, Gozal D, Gross E, Sherman Y, Bar-Ziv J, Libson E (2001) Percutaneous image-guided needle biopsy in children – summary of our experience with 57 children. Pediatr Radiol 31(10):732–736PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Spechler SJ (2013) Achalasia. Waltham, MA. (Accessed on February 25, 2015.)Google Scholar
  113. Squire R, Kiely EM, Carr B, Ransley PG, Duffy PG (1993) The clinical application of the Malone antegrade colonic enema. J Pediatr Surg 28(8):1012–1015PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Stellato TA, Gauderer MW (1987) Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy for gastrointestinal decompression. Ann Surg 205(2):119–122PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Sury MR, Hatch DJ, Deeley T, Dicks-Mireaux C, Chong WK (1999) Development of a nurse-led sedation service for paediatric magnetic resonance imaging. Lancet 353(9165):1667–1671PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Sze DY, Esquivel CO (2002) The role of interventional radiology in a pediatric liver transplant program. Pediatr Transplant 6(1):1–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Temiz A, Oguzkurt P, Ezer SS, Ince E, Hicsonmez A (2010) Long-term management of corrosive esophageal stricture with balloon dilation in children. Surg Endosc 24(9):2287–2292PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. ter Borg PC, Hollemans M, Van Buuren HR, Vleggaar FP, Groeneweg M, Hop WC, Lameris JS (2004) Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts: long-term patency and clinical results in a patient cohort observed for 3-9 years. Radiology 231(2):537–545PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Thyoka M, Timmis A, Mhango T, Roebuck DJ (2013) Balloon dilatation of anastomotic strictures secondary to surgical repair of oesophageal atresia: a systematic review. Pediatr Radiol 43(8):898–901PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Tiryaki S, Ergun O, Celik A, Ulman I, Avanoglu A (2010) Success of Malone’s antegrade continence enema (MACE) from the patients’ perspective. Eur J Pediatr Surg 20(6):405–407PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Towbin RB (1991) Pediatric interventional radiology. Curr Opin Radiol 3(6):931–935PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Towbin RB, Ball WS Jr (1988) Pediatric interventional radiology. Radiol Clin North Am 26(2):419–440PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Upadhyaya M, Fataar S, Sajwany MJ, Upadhyaya M, Fataar S, Sajwany MJ (2002) Achalasia of the cardia: experience with hydrostatic balloon dilatation in children. Pediatr Radiol 32(6):409–412PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. van der Vlies CH, Hoekstra J, Ponsen KJ, Reekers JA, van Delden OM, Goslings JC (2012) Impact of splenic artery embolization on the success rate of nonoperative management for blunt splenic injury. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 35(1):76–81. doi: 10.1007/s00270-011-0132-z PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. van Schuppen J, Olthof DC, Wilde JC, Beenen LF, van Rijn RR, Goslings JC (2014) Diagnostic accuracy of a step-up imaging strategy in pediatric patients with blunt abdominal trauma. Eur J Radiol 83(1):206–211PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Vo NJ, Althoen M, Hippe DS, Prabhu SJ, Valji K, Padia SA (2014) Pediatric abdominal and pelvic trauma: safety and efficacy of arterial embolization. J Vasc Interv Radiol 25(2):215–220. doi: 10.1016/j.jvir.2013.09.014 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Weber F, Wulf H, el Saeidi G (2003) Premedication with nasal s-ketamine and midazolam provides good conditions for induction of anesthesia in preschool children. Can J Anaesth 50(5):470–475PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Weintraub JL, Eubig J (2006) Balloon catheter dilatation of benign esophageal strictures in children. J Vasc Interv Radiol 17(5):831–835PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Wiebe S, Cohen J, Connolly B, Chait P (2005) Percutaneous decompression of the bowel with a small-caliber needle: a method to facilitate percutaneous abdominal access. AJR Am J Roentgenol 184(1):227–229PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Woodthorpe C, Trigg A, Alison G, Sury M (2007) Nurse led sedation for paediatric MRI: progress and issues. Paediatr Nurs 19(2):14–18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Yagmurlu A, Harmon CM, Georgeson KE (2006) Laparoscopic cecostomy button placement for the management of fecal incontinence in children with Hirschsprung’s disease and anorectal anomalies. Surg Endosc 20(4):624–627PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Yeming W, Somme S, Chenren S, Huiming J, Ming Z, Liu DC (2002) Balloon catheter dilatation in children with congenital and acquired esophageal anomalies. J Pediatr Surg 37(3):398–402PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Youn BJ, Kim WS, Cheon JE, Kim WY, Shin SM, Kim IO, Yeon KM (2010) Balloon dilatation for corrosive esophageal strictures in children: radiologic and clinical outcomes. Korean J Radiol 11(2):203–210PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Yu SC, Liew CT, Lau WY, Leung TW, Metreweli C (2001) US-guided percutaneous biopsy of small (< or = 1-cm) hepatic lesions. Radiology 218(1):195–199PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of RadiologyAcademic Medical Centre/Emma Children’s Hospital AmsterdamAmsterdam Zuid-OostThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations