Stress Fractures of the Foot in Footballers

  • Palmanovich Ezequiel
  • Keltz Eran
  • Kots Eugene
  • Marom Niv
  • Hetsroni Iftach
  • Nyska Meir
  • Mann GideonEmail author


Stress fracture comprises the inability of bone to withstand the repeated stress which athletic activity, military service, or even normal life exerts on a prior strong normal or weakened bone. This failure to repair the microtraumas leads to fatigue microdamage of the bone due to predominance of osteoclastic over the osteoblastic activity.


Stress Fracture Football Player Computerize Tomogram Cannulated Screw Plantar Fasciitis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Ekstrand J, Torstveit MK (2012) Stress fractures in elite male football players. Scand J Med Sci Sports 22(3):341–346PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Shiraishi M, Mizuta H, Kubota K, Sakuma K, Takagi K (1993) Stress fracture of the proximal phalanx of the great toe. Foot Ankle 14(1):28–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Warden SJ, Creaby MW, Bryant AL, Crossley KM (2007) Stress fracture risk factors in female football players and their clinical implications. Br J Sports Med 41(Suppl 1):i38–i43, Epub 2007 Jun 21PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Warden SJ, Burr DB, Brukner PD (2006) Stress fractures: pathophysiology, epidemiology, and risk factors. Curr Osteoporos Rep 4:103–109PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ekstrand J, Gillquist J (1983) The avoidability of soccer injuries. Int J Sports Med 4:124–128PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ekstrand J, Gillquist J (1983) Soccer injuries and their mechanisms: a prospective study. Med Sci Sports Exerc 15:267–270PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Torstveit MK, Sundgot-Borgen J (2005) The female athlete triad: are elite athletes at increased risk? Med Sci Sports Exerc 37:184–193PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sundgot-Borgen J, Torstveit MK (2007) The female football player, disordered eating, menstrual function and bone health. Br J Sports Med 41(Suppl 1):i68–i72PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Stewart IM (1960) Jones fracture: fracture of the base of fifth metatarsal. Clin Orthop 16:190–198PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jones R (1902) Fractures for the base of the fifth metatarsal bone by indirect violence. Ann Surg 34:697–700Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Pritsch M, Heim M, Tauber H et al (1980) An unusual fracture of the base of the fifth metatarsal bone. J Trauma 20(6):530–531PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Richli WR, Rosenthal DI (1984) Avulsion fracture of the fifth metatarsal: experimental study of the pathomechanics. Am J Roentgenol 143:889–891CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kavanaugh JH, Brower TD, Mann RV (1978) The Jones fracture revisited. J Bone Joint Surg Am 60:776–782PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Byrd T (1992) Jones fracture: relearning an old injury. South Med J 85:748–750PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Anderson EG (1990) Fatigue fractures of the foot. Injury 21:275–279PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pecina M, Bojanic I, Smoljanovic T et al (2011) Surgical treatment of diaphyseal stress fractures of the fifth metatarsal in competitive athletes: long-term follow-up and computerized pedobarographic analysis. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 101(6):517–522PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bluth B, Eagan M, Otsuka NY (2011) Stress fractures of the lateral rays in the cavovarus foot: indication for surgical intervention. Orthopedics 34(10):e696–e699PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lee KT, Kim KC, Park YU, Kim TW, Lee YK (2011) Radiographic evaluation of foot structure following fifth metatarsal stress fracture. Foot Ankle Int 32(8):796–801PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Goulart M, O’Malley MJ, Hodgkins CW et al (2008) Foot and ankle fractures in dancers. Clin Sports Med 27(2):295–304PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Monteleone GP Jr (1995) Stress fractures in the athlete. Orthop Clin North Am 26(3):423–432PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Thevendran G, Deol RS, Calder JD (2013) Fifth metatarsal fractures in the athlete: evidence for management. Foot Ankle Clin 18(2):237–254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gehrmann RM, Rajan S, Patel DV et al (2005) Athletes’ ankle injuries: diagnosis and management. Am J Orthop (Belle Mead NJ) 34(11):551–561Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Brockwell J, Yeung Y, Griffith JF (2009) Stress fractures of the foot and ankle. Sports Med Arthrosc 17(3):149–159PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hetsroni I, Nyska M, Ben-Sira D, Mann G, Segal O, Maoz G, Ayalon M (2010) Analysis of foot structure in athletes sustaining proximal fifth metatarsal stress fracture. Foot Ankle Int 31(3):203–211PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Torg JS, Balduini FC, Zelko RR et al (1984) Fractures of the base of the fifth metatarsal distal to the tuberosity: classification and guidelines for non-surgical and surgical management. J Bone Joint Surg Am 66:209–214PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Acker JH, Drez D (1986) Non-operative treatment of stress fracture of the proximal shaft for the fifth metatarsal (Jones fracture). Foot Ankle 7(3):152PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Brukner P, Bennell K, Matheson G (1999) Stress fractures. Blackwell Science, Champaign, pp 178–181Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Clapper MF, O’Brien TJ, Lyons PM (1995) Fractures of the fifth metatarsal. Analysis of a fracture registry. Clin Orthop Relat Res 315:238–241PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lawrence SJ, Botte MJ (1993) Jones fractures and related fractures of the proximal fifth metatarsal. Foot Ankle 14(6):358–365PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Sammarco GJ (1993) The Jones fracture. Instr Course Lect 42:201–205PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Strayer SM, Reece SG, Petrizzi MJ (1999) Fractures of the proximal fifth metatarsal. Am Fam Physician 59(9):2516–2522PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Zogby RG, Baker BE (1987) A review of nonoperative treatment of Jones’ fracture. Am J Sports Med 15(4):304–307PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Polzer H, Polzer S, Mutschler W et al (2012) Acute fractures to the proximal fifth metatarsal bone: development of classification and treatment recommendations based on the current evidence. Injury 43(10):1626–1632PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    DeLee JC, Evans JP, Julian J (1983) Stress fracture of the fifth metatarsal. Am J Sports Med 11(5):349–353PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Dameron TB (1975) Fractures and anatomical variations of the proximal portion of the fifth metatarsal. J Bone Joint Surg Am 57:788–792PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Weinfeld SB, Haddad SL, Myerson MS (1997) Metatarsal stress fractures [review]. Clin Sports Med 16(2):319–338PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Zelle BA, Gollwitzer H, Zlowodzki M, Bühren V (2010) Extracorporeal shock wave therapy: current evidence. J Orthop Trauma 24(Suppl 1):S66–S70PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Kesani AK, Gandhi A, Lin SS (2006) Electrical bone stimulation devices in foot and ankle surgery: types of devices, scientific basis, and clinical indications for their use. Foot Ankle Int 27(2):148–156PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Bergfeld J (2004) FIMS/ISAKOS consensus meeting on Ankle Sprains, Hong Kong, Sept 2004Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Vertullo CJ, Glisson RR, Nunley JA (2004) Torsional strains in the proximal fifth metatarsal: implications for Jones and stress fracture management. Foot Ankle Int 25(9):650–656PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Lee KT, Park YU, Young KW et al (2011) Surgical results of 5th metatarsal stress fracture using modified tension band wiring. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 19(5):853–857PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Popovic N, Jalali A, Georis P et al (2005) Proximal fifth metatarsal diaphyseal stress fracture in football players. Foot Ankle Surg 11(3):135–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Murawski CD, Kennedy JG (2011) Percutaneous internal fixation of proximal fifth metatarsal fractures (zones II and III) with Charlotte Carolina screw and bone marrow aspirate concentrate: an outcome study in athletes. Am J Sports Med 39(6):1295–1301PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ekstrand J, van Dijk CN (2013) Fifth metatarsal fractures among male professional footballers: a potential career-ending disease. Br J Sports Med 47(12):754–758PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Khan WS, Agarwal M, Warren-Smith C (2005) Management of fractures of the base of the fifth metatarsals distal to the tuberosity. Foot 15:141–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Josefsson PO, Karlsson M, Redlund-Johnell I et al (1994) Jones fracture. Surgical versus non-surgical treatment. Clin Orthop Relat Res 299:252–255PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Porter DA, Duncan M, Meyer SJ (2005) Fifth metatarsal Jones fracture fixation with a 4.5mm-cannulated stainless steel screw in the competitive and recreational athlete: a clinical and radiographic evaluation. Am J Sports Med 33(5):726–733PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Shah SN, Knoblich GO, Lindsey DP et al (2001) Intramedullary screw fixation of proximal fifth metatarsal fractures: a biomechanical study. Foot Ankle Int 22(7):581–584PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Habbu RA, Marsh RS, Anderson JG et al (2011) Closed intramedullary screw fixation for nonunion of fifth metatarsal Jones fracture. Foot Ankle Int 32(6):603–608PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Wright RW, Fischer DA, Shively RA et al (2000) Refracture of proximal fifth metatarsal (Jones) fracture after intramedullary screw fixation in athletes. Am J Sports Med 28(5):732–736PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Larson CM, Almekinders LC, Taft TN et al (2000) Intramedullary screw fixation of Jones fractures: analysis of failure. Am J Sports Med 30(1):55–60Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Beck BR, Matheson GO, Bergman G, Norling T, Fredericson M, Hoffman AR, Marcus R (2008) Do capacitively coupled electric fields accelerate tibial stress fracture healing? A randomized controlled trial. Am J Sports Med 36(3):545–553PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Benazzo F, Mosconi M, Beccarisi G et al (1995) Use of capacitive coupled electric fields in stress fractures in athletes. Clin Orthop 310:145–149PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Brand JC, Brindle T, Nyland J et al (1999) Does pulsed low intensity ultrasound allow early return to normal activiites when treating stress fractures? A review of one tarsal navicular and eight tibial stress fractures. Iowa Orthop J 19:26–30PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    de Albornoz PM, Khanna A, Longo UG, Forriol F, Maffuli N (2011) The evidence of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound for in vitro, animal and human fracture healing. Br Med Bull 100:39–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Shindle MK, Endo Y, Warren RF, Lane JM, Helfet DL, Schwartz EN, Ellis SJ (2012) Stress fractures about the tibia, foot, and ankle. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 20(3):167–176PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Furia JP, Rompe JD, Cacchio A, Maffulli N (2010) Shock wave therapy as a treatment of nonunions, avascular necrosis, and delayed healing of stress fractures. Foot Ankle Clin 25(4):651–662CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Griffin XL, Smith N, Parsons N, Costa ML (2012) Ultrasound and shockwave therapy for acute fractures in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2:CD008579. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD008579.pub2 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Mc Bryde AM (1996) Stress fractures of the foot and ankle. In: De Lee JC, Drez D (eds) Orthopaedic sports medicine. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 1970–1977Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Kroening PM, Shelton ML (1963) Stress fractures. Am J Roentgenol 89:1281–1286Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Linz J, Conti S, Stone D (2001) Foot and ankle injuries. In: Fu F, Stone D (eds) Sports injuries. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkens, Philadelphia, pp 1152–1153Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Puddu G, Cerulli G, Selvanetti A, De-Paulis F (1998) Stress fractures. In: Harries M, Williams C, Stanish WD, Micheli LJ (eds) Oxford textbook of sports medicine. Oxford University Press, Oxford/New York, p 663Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Campbell G, Warnekros W (1983) Tarsal stress fracture in a long distance runner. A case report. J Am Podiatry Assoc 73:532–535PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Davis AW, Alexander IJ (1990) Problematic fractures and dislocations in the foot and ankle of athletes. Clin Sports Med 9:163–181PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Fitch KD, Blackwell JB, Gilmour WN (1989) Operation for non union of stress fracture of the tarsal navicular. J Bone Joint Surg 71(B):105–110Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Hulkko A, Orava S, Peltokallio P et al (1985) Stress fracture of the navicular bone. Nine cases in athletes. Acta Orthop Scand 56:503–505PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Orava S, Karpakka J, Hulkko A et al (1991) Stress avulsion fracture of the tarsal navicular. An uncommon sport related overuse injury. Am J Sport Med 19(4):392–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Towne LC, Blazina ME, Cazen LN (1970) Fatigue fracture of the tarsal navicular. J Bone Joint Surg 52A:376–378Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Helstad PE, Ringstrom JB, Erdmann BB (1996) Bilateral stress fractures of the tarsal navicular with associated avascular necrosis in a pole vault. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 86(11):551–554PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Khan KM, Brukner PD, Kearney C et al (1994) Tarsal navicular stress fractures in athletes. Sports Med 17(1):65–76PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Alfred R, Belhobek G, Bergfeld JA (1992) Stress fractures of the tarsal navicular. A case report. Am J Sport Med 20(6):766–768CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Coris EE, Kaeding CC, Marymont JV (2003) Tarsal navicular stress injuries in athletes. Orthopedics 26(7):733–737, quiz 738-9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Lee S, Anderson RB (2004) Stress fractures of the tarsal navicular. Foot Ankle Clin 9(1):85–104PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Torg JS, Pavlov H, Cooley LH et al (1982) Stress fracture of the tarsal navicular. A retrospective review of twenty-one cases. J Bone Joint Surg 64(A):700–712PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Khan KM, Fuller PJ, Brukner PD et al (1992) Outcome of conservative and surgical management of navicular stress fracture in athletes. Am J Sport Med 20:657–666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Sizensky JA, Marks RM (2004) Imaging of the navicular. Foot Ankle Clin 9:181–209PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Ariyoshi M, Nagata K, Kubo M et al (1998) MRI monitoring of tarsal navicular stress fracture healing – a case report. Kurume Med J 45(2):223–225PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Kiss ZA, Khan KM, Fuller PJ (1993) Stress fractures of the tarsal navicular bone: CT findings in 55 cases. Am J Roentgenol 160:111–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Mann G (2000) Stress fractures. In Doral MN (ed) Sports injuries. Arthroscopy and joint surgery, current trends and concepts, Ankara, p 307Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Richardson EG (1999) Hallucal sesamoid pain: causes and surgical treatment. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 7(4):270–278PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Boike A, Schnirring-Judge M, McMillin S (2011) Sesamoid disorders of the first metatarsophalangeal joint. Clin Podiatr Med Surg 28(2):269–285PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Biedert R, Hintermann B (2003) Str ess fractures of the medial great toe sesamoids in athletes. Foot Ankle Int 24(2):137–141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    McBryde AM (1989) Stress fractures in runners. In: D’Amrosia R, Drez D (eds) Prevention and treatment of running injuries, 2nd edn. Slack, ThoroughfareGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Orava S, Hulkko A (1988) Delayed unions and nonunions of stress fractures in athletes. Am J Sports Med 16:378–382PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Golding C (1960) Museum pages V: the sesamoids of the hallux. J Bone Joint Surg 42B:840–843Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Mann R (1978) Surgery of the foot, 4th edn. CV Mosby CO, St. Louis, pp 122–125Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Biedert R (1993) Which investigations are required in stress fracture of the great toe sesamoids? J Orthop Trauma Surg 112(2):94–95Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Burton EM, Amaker BH (1994) Stress fracture of the great toe sesamoid in a ballerina: MRI appearance. Pediatr Radiol 24:37–38PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Orava S (2003) Uncommon stress fractures and their treatment principles. Instructional course on stress fractures, ICL no. 19, ISAKOS Congress March 2003, AucklandGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    McBryde AM, Anderson RB (1988) Sesamoid foot problems in the athlete. Clin Sports Med 7:51–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Anderson RB, McBryde AM (1997) Autogenous bone grafting of hallux sesamoid nonunions. Foot Ankle 18:293–296PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Hulkko A, Orava S, Pellinen P et al (1985) Stress fractures of the sesamoid bones of the first metatarsophalangeal joint in athletes. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 104:113–117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Peterson L, Renstrom P (2001) Sports injuries. Martin Dunitz, London, p 421Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Perez-Carro L, Echevarria-Llata JI, Martinez-Agueros JA (1999) Arthroscopic medial bipartite sesamoidectomy of the great toe. Arthroscopy 15(3):321–323PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Hetsroni I, Mann G, Dolev E, Morgenstern D, Nyska M (2005) Base of fourth metatarsal stress fracture: tendency for prolonged healing. Clin J Sport Med 15(3):186–188PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Saxena A, Krisdakumtorn T, Erickson S (2001) Proximal fourth metatarsal injuries in athletes: similarity to proximal fifth metatarsal injury. Foot Ankle Int 22(7):603–608PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Rongstad KM, Tueting J, Rongstad M, Garrels K, Meis R (2013) Fourth metatarsal base stress fractures in athletes: a case series. Foot Ankle Int 34(7):962–968PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Black KP, Ehlert KJ (1994) A stress fracture of the lateral process of the talus in a runner. A case report. J Bone Joint Surg Am 76(3):441–443PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Umans H, Pavlov H (1995) Insifficiency fracture of the talus: diagnosis with MR imaging. Radiology 197(2):439–442PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Cline AD, Jansen GR, Melby CL (1998) Stress fractures in female army recruits – implications of bone density, calcium intake and exercise. J Am Coll Nutr 17:128PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Okada K, Senma S, Abe E, Sato K, Minato S (1995) Stress fractures of the medial malleolus: a case report. Foot Ankle Int 16(1):49–52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Orava S, Karpakka J, Taimela S, Hulkko A, Permi J, Kujala U (1995) Stress fractures of the medial malleolis. J Bone Joint Surg Am 77(3):362–365PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Shabat S, Mann G, Constantini N, Elyakim A, Shenkman Z, Nyska M (2002) Stress fractures of the medial malleolus in athletes. The 18th international Jerusalem symposium on sports medicine., March 2002.
  104. 104.
    Lempainen L, Liimatainen E, Heikkila J, Alonso J, Sarimo J, Mattila K, Orava S (2012) Medial malleolar stress fracture in athletes: diagnosis and operative treatment. Scand J Surg 101(4):261–264PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Shabat S, Sampson KB, Mann G, Gepstein R, Eliakim A, Shenkman Z, Nyska M (2002) Stress fractures of the medial Malleolus. Review of the literature and report of a 15-year-old elite gymnast. Foot Ankle Int 23(7):647–650PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Kor A, Saltzman AT, Wempe PD (2003) Medial malleolar stress fractures. Literature review, diagnosis, and treatment. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 93(4):292–297PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Finestone & Lavon. Israel medical Corps. Command. Instruction no. 09:01, June 2006Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Steckel H, Klinger HM, Baums MH, Schultz W (2005) Beidseitige Stressfraktur des Malleolus medialis [Bilateral stress fracture of the medial malleolus]. Sportverletz Sportschaden 19(1):41–45PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Wilson ES Jr, Katz FN (1969) Stress fractures. An analysis of 250 consecutive cases. Radiology 92(3):481–486PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Mayer SW, Joyner PW, Almekinders LC, Parekh SG (2014) Stress fractures of the foot and ankle in athletes. Sports Health 6(6):481–491PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Imerci A, Incesu M, Bozoglan M, Canbek U, Ursavas HT (2012) Bilateral calcaneal stress fractures: a case report. Ortop Traumatol Rehabil 14(5):477–481PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Pearce CJ, Zaw H, Calder JD (2011) Stress fracture of the anterior process of the calcaneus associated with a calcaneonavicular coalition: a case report. Foot Ankle Int 32(1):85–88PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Miki T, Miki T, Nishiyama A (2014) Calcaneal stress fracture: an adverse event following total hip and total knee arthroplasty: a report of five cases. J Bone Joint Surg Am 96(2):e9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    O’Malley MJ, Hamilton WG, Munyak J, DeFranco MJ (1996) Stress fractures at the base of the second metatarsal in ballet dancers. Foot Ankle Int 17(2):89–94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Micheli LJ, Sohn RS, Solomon R (1985) Stress fractures of the second metatarsal involving Lisfranc’s joint in ballet dancers. A new overuse injury of the foot. J Bone Joint Surg Am 67(9):1372–1375PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Brunker P, Bennell K, Matheson G (1999) Stress fractures. Blackwell Science Asia, Carlton, pp 175–178Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Harrington T, Crichton KJ, Anderson IF (1993) Overuse ballet injury of the base of the second metatarsal. A diagnostic problem. Am J Sports Med 21(4):591–598PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Palmanovich Ezequiel
    • 1
  • Keltz Eran
    • 2
  • Kots Eugene
    • 3
  • Marom Niv
    • 1
  • Hetsroni Iftach
    • 1
  • Nyska Meir
    • 1
  • Mann Gideon
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Unit of Sports Medicine, Department of Orthopaedic SurgeryMeir Medical Centre, Kfar Saba, Tel Aviv UniversityTel AvivIsrael
  2. 2.Department of Orthopaedic SurgeryRambam Medical CentreHaifaIsrael
  3. 3.Department of Diagnostic RadiologyMeir Medical Centre, Kfar Saba, Tel Aviv UniversityTel AvivIsrael

Personalised recommendations