PRP in Football Players

  • Ramon CugatEmail author
  • Xavier Cusco
  • Roberto Seijas
  • Pedro Alvarez
  • Gilbert Steinbacher
  • Marta Rius


Football is played by approximately 5 % of the Spanish population aged between 15 and 35 years old and regulated by the Spanish Football Federation. This high prevalence also carries a high rate of associated injuries. The Catalan Soccer Federation is a sports association in the autonomous region of Catalonia, Spain, with more than 140,000 members. Approximately 22,000 injuries occur annually among members of the Federation, most of which are muscle, ankle, and knee lesions. The Mutualitat de Futbolistes is an organization within the Catalan Soccer Federation that provides health insurance coverage for all soccer-related injuries sustained by federated soccer players in Catalonia. The idiosyncrasy of the patient in a sport like football involves diagnosis and management of the markedly different injuries when compared to the occasional athlete. The three most common injuries treated at the Mutualitat de Futbolistes are muscle, ankle, and knee injuries [109].


Anterior Cruciate Ligament Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Patellar Tendon Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Medial Collateral Ligament 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Aim A, Liljedahl SO, Stromberg B (1979) Clinical and experimental experience in the reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament. Orthop Clin North Am 7:181–189Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Allen D, Beaulé PE, Ramadan O, Doucette S (2009) Prevalence of associated deformities and hip pain in patients with cam-type femoroacetabular impingement. J Bone Joint Surg Br 91(5):589–594PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Anderson K, Seneviratne AM, Izawa K, Atkinson BL, Potter HG, Rodeo SA (2001) Augmentation of tendon healing in an intraarticular bone tunnel with use of a bone growth factor. Am J Sports Med 29(6):689–698PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Anitua E (1999) Plasma rich in growth factors: preliminary results of use in the preparation of sites for implants. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 14:529–535PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Anitua E, Andia I, Ardanza B, Nurden P, Nurden AT (2004) Autologous platelets as a source of proteins for healing and tissue regeneration. Thromb Haemost 91:4–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Anitua E, Sanchez M, Nurden AT, Zalduendo M, de la Fuente M, Azofra J, Andia I (2007) Reciprocal actions of platelet-secreted TGF-beta1 on the production of VEGF and HGF by human tendon cells. Plast Reconstr Surg 119(3):950–959PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Anitua E, Sanchez M, Nurden AT, Zalduendo M, de la Fuente M, Orive G, Azofra J, Andia I (2006) Autologous fibrin matrices: a potential source of biological mediators that modulate tendon cell activities. J Biomed Mater Res A 77(2):285–293PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Arnoczky SP, Tarvin GB (1982) Anterior cruciate ligament replacement using patellar tendon: an evaluation of graft revascularization in the dog. J Bone Joint Surg Am 64:217–224PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Aspenberg P, Virchenko O (2004) Platelet concentrate injection improves Achilles tendon repair in rats. Acta Orthop Scand 75(1):93–99PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Audenaert EA, Peeters I, Vigneron L, Baelde N, Pattyn C (2012) Hip morphological characteristics and range of internal rotation in femoroacetabular impingement. Am J Sports Med 40:1329–1336PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Backus JD, Viens NA, Nunley JA (2012) Arthroscopic treatment of osteochondral lesions of the talus: microfracture and drilling versus debridement. J Surg Orthop Adv 21(4):218–222PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Badekas T, Takvorian M, Souras N (2013) Treatment principles for osteochondral lesions in foot and ankle. Int Orthop 37(9):1697–1706PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Barnes CJ, Ferkel RD (2003) Arthroscopic debridement and drilling of osteochondral lesions of the talus. Foot Ankle Clin 8(2):243–257PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Battaglia M, Guaraldi F, Vannini F, Buscio T, Buda R, Galletti S, Giannini S (2011) Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) intra-articular ultrasound-guided injections as a possible treatment for hip osteoarthritis: a pilot study. Clin Exp Rheumatol 29(4):754PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Beaufils P, Gaudot F, Drain O, Boisrenoult P, Pujol N (2011) Mini-invasive technique for bone patellar tendon bone harvesting: its superiority in reducing anterior knee pain following ACL reconstruction. Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med 4(2):45–51PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Beck M, Kalhor M, Leunig M, Ganz R (2005) Hip morphology influences the pattern of damage to the acetabular cartilage: femoroacetabular impingement as a cause of early osteoarthritis of the hip. J Bone Joint Surg Br 87:1012–1018PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bedi A, Dolan M, Leunig M, Kelly BT (2011) Static and dynamic mechanical causes of hip pain. Arthroscopy 27(2):235–251PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bennett NT, Schultz GS (1993) Growth factors and wound healing: biochemical properties of growth factors and their receptors. Am J Surg 165(6):728–737PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bennett NT, Schultz GS (1993) Growth factors and wound healing: part II. Role in normal and chronic wound healing. Am J Surg 166(1):74–81PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Birmingham PM, Kelly BT, Jacobs R, McGrady L, Wang M (2012) The effect of dynamic femoroacetabular impingement on pubic symphysis motion: a cadaveric study. Am J Sports Med 40:1113–1118PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Burns J, Rosenbach B (1989) Osteochondrosis dissecans of the talus. Results of a follow-up study. Z Orthop Ihre Grenzgeb 127(5):549–555PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Braun HJ, Wasterlain AS, Dragoo JL (2013) The use of PRP in ligament and meniscal healing. Sports Med Arthrosc 21(4):206–212PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cervellin M, de Girolamo L, Bait C, Denti M, Volpi P (2012) Autologous platelet-rich plasma gel to reduce donor-site morbidity after patellar tendon graft harvesting for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a randomized, controlled clinical study. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 20(1):114–120PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Cimino F, Volk BS, Setter D (2010) Anterior cruciate ligament injury: diagnosis, management and prevention. Am Fam Physician 82(8):917–922PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Clanton TO, Coude KJ (1998) Hamstring strains in athletes: diagnosis and treatment. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 6:237–248PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Copland ST, Tipton JS, Fields KB (2009) Evidence-based treatment of hamstring tears. Curr Sports Med Rep 8:308–314PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Creaney L, Hamilton B (2008) Growth factor delivery methods in the management of sports injuries: the state of play. Br J Sports Med 42:314–320PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cugat R (2009) Platelet growth factors: experience in soft tissue injuries and in joint trauma. ISAKOS, Osaka, 5–9 Apr 2009Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    De Almeida AM, Demange MK, Sobrado MF, Rodrigues MB, Pedrinelli A, Hernandez AJ (2012) Patellar tendon healing with platelet-rich plasma: a prospective randomized controlled trial. Am J Sports Med 40(6):1282–1288PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Drezner JA (2003) Practical management hamstring muscle injuries. Clin J Sport Med 13:48–52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    de Mos M, van der Windt AE, Jahr H, van Schie HT, Weinans H, Verhaar JA, van Osch GJ (2008) Can platelet-rich plasma enhance tendon repair? A cell culture study. Am J Sports Med 36(6):1171–1178PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Dvorak J, Junge A (2006) F-MARC: manual de medicina del fútbol. Federación Internacional de Fútbol Asociación (FIFA), ZurichGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Edwards SG, Calandruccio JH (2003) Autologous blood injection for refractory lateral epicondylitis. J Hand Surg [Am] 28(2):272–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ekstrand J, Hägglund M, Walden M (2011) Epidemiology of muscle injuries in professional football (soccer). Am J Sports Med 39:1226–1232PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Engebretsen L, Steffen K, Alsousou J, Anitua E, Bachl N, Devilee R, Everts P, Hamilton B, Huard J, Jenoure P, Kelberine F, Kon E, Maffulli N, Matheson G, Mei-Dan O, Menetrey J, Philippon M, Randelli P, Schamasch P, Schwellnus M, Vernec A, Verrall G (2010) IOC consensus paper on the use of platelet-rich plasma in sports medicine. Br J Sports Med 44:1072–1081PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Falconiero RP, DiStefano VJ, Cook TM (1998) Revascularization and ligamentization of autogenous anterior cruciate ligament grafts in humans. Arthroscopy 14:197–205PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Fernandez-Sarmiento JA, Dominguez JM, Granados MM et al (2013) Histological study of the influence of plasma rich in growth factors (ORGF) on the healing of divided Achilles tendons in sheep. J Bone Joint Surg Am 95(3):246–255PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Filardo G, Kon E, Della Villa S, Vincentelli F, Fornasari PM, Marcacci M (2010) Use of platelet rich plasma for the treatment of refractory jumper’s knee. Int Orthop 34(6):909–915PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Fong DT, Hong Y, Chan LK, Yung PS, Chan KM (2007) A systematic review on ankle injury and ankle sprain in sports. Sports Med 37(1):73–94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Foster TE, Puskas BL, Mandelbaum BR et al (2009) Platelet-rich plasma. From basic science to clinical applications. Am J Sports Med 37:2259–2272PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Ganz R, Parvizi J, Beck M, Leunig M, Notzli H, Siebenrock KA (2003) Femoroacetabular impingement: a cause for osteoarthritis of the hip. Clin Orthop Relat Res 417:112–120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Garret WE (2000) Principles & practice of orthopaedic sports medicine. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, p 888Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Gaweda K, Tarczynska M, Krzyzanowski W (2010) Treatment of Achilles tendinopathy with platelet-rich plasma. Int J Sports Med 31(8):577–583PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Gerhardt MB, Romero AA, Silvers HJ, Harris DJ, Watanabe D, Mandelbaum BR (2012) The prevalence of radiographic hip abnormalities in elite soccer players. Am J Sports Med 40(3):584–588PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Giannini S, Buda R, Battaglia M, Cavallo M, Ruffilli A, Ramponi L, Pagliazzi G, Vannini F (2013) One-step repair in talar osteochondral lesions: 4-year clinical results and t2-mapping capability in outcome prediction. Am J Sports Med 41(3):511–518PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Giordano B (2010) The effect of platelet enriched plasma on early clinical outcomes in patients with femoroacetabular impingement following arthroscopic labral repair and femoral neck osteplasty. ISHA 2010, CancunGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Giza E, Sullivan M, Ocel D, Lundeen G, Mitchell ME, Veris L, Walton J (2010) Matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation of talus articular defects. Foot Ankle Int 31(9):747–753PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Gobbi A, Francisco RA, Lubowitz JH, Allegra F, Canata G (2006) Osteochondral lesions of the talus: randomized controlled trial comparing chondroplasty, microfracture, and osteochondral autograft transplantation. Arthroscopy 22(10):1085–1092PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Golightly YM, Marshall SW, Callahan LF, Guskiewicz K (2009) Early-onset arthritis in retired National Football League players. J Phys Act Health 6(5):638–643PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Gosens T, Peerbooms JC, van Laar W, den Oudsten BL (2011) Ongoing positive effect of platelet-rich plasma versus corticosteroid injection in lateral epicondylitis: a double-blind randomized controlled trial with 2-year follow-up. Am J Sports Med 39(6):1200–1208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Griffin LY, Agel J, Albohm MJ et al (2000) Noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injuries: risk factors and prevention strategies. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 8(3):141–150PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Hack K, Di Primio G, Rakhra K, Beaulé PE (2010) Prevalence of cam-type femoroacetabular impingement morphology in asymptomatic volunteers. J Bone Joint Surg Am 92(14):2436–2444PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Hangody L (2003) The mosaicplasty technique for osteochondral lesions of the talus. Foot Ankle Clin 8(2):259–273PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Hankemeier S, Müller EJ, Kamisnski A, Muhr G (2003) 10-year results of bone marrow stimulating therapy in the treatment of osteochondritis dissecans of the talus. Unfallchirurg 106(6):461–466PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Hembree WC, Wittstein JR, Vinson EN, Queen RM, Larose CR, Singh K, Easley ME (2012) Magnetic resonance imaging features of osteochondral lesions of the talus. Foot Ankle Int 33(7):591–597PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Hildebrand KA, Woo SL, Smith DW, Allen CR, Deie M, Taylor BJ, Schmidt CC (1998) The effects of platelet-derived growth factor-BB on healing of the rabbit medial collateral ligament. An in vivo study. Am J Sports Med 26(4):549–554PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Howell SM, Clark JA, Blasier RD (1991) Serial magnetic resonance imaging of hamstring anterior cruciate ligament autografts during the first year of implantation. Am J Sports Med 19:42–47PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Insall JN, Scott WN (2007) Surgery of the knee, 3rd edn. Philadelphia, Elsevier pp 600–650Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Jarvinen TAH, Jarvinen TLN, K€a€ari€ainen M, A€arimaa V, Vaittinen S, Kalimo H, Jarvinen M (2007) Muscle injuries: optimising recovery. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol 21:317–331PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Junge A, Dvorak J (2004) Soccer injuries: a review on incidence and prevention. Sports Med 34(13):929–938PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Kajikawa Y, Morihara T, Sakamoto H, Matsuda K, Oshima Y, Yoshida A, Nagae M, Arai Y, Kawata M, Kubo T (2008) Platelet-rich plasma enhances the initial mobilization of circulation-derived cells for tendon healing. J Cell Physiol 215(3):837–845PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Kang AC, Gooding AJ, Coates MH, Goh TD, Armour P, Rietveld J (2010) Computed tomography assessment of hip joints in asymptomatic individuals in relation to femoroacetabular impingement. Am J Sports Med 38(6):1160–1165PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Kennedy JC, Willis RB (1976) The effects of local steroid injections on tendons: a biomechanical and microscopic correlative study. Am J Sports Med 4:11–21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Kleinman M, Gross A (1983) Achilles tendon rupture following steroid injection. Report of three cases. J Bone Joint Surg Am 65:1345–1347PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Kon E, Filardo G, Di Martino A, Marcacci M (2011) Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) to treat sports injuries: evidence to support its use. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 19(4):516–527PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Kondo E, Yasuda K, Yamanaka M et al (2005) Effects of administration of exogenous growth factors on biomechanical properties of the elongation-type anterior cruciate ligament injury with partial laceration. Am J Sports Med 33:188–196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Kovacevic D, Rodeo SA (2008) Biological augmentation of rotator cuff tendon repair. Clin Orthop 466:622–633PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Laborie LB, Lehmann TG, Engesaeter IO, Eastwood DM, Engesaeter LB, Rosendahl K (2011) Prevalence of radiographic findings thought to be associated with femoroacetabular impingement in a population-based cohort of 2081 healthy young adults. Radiology 260(2):494–502PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Larson CM, Giveans MR, Taylor M (2011) Does arthroscopic FAI correction improve function with radiographic arthritis? Clin Orthop Relat Res 469(6):1667–1676PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Lopez-Vidriero E, Goulding KA, Simon DA, Sanchez M, Johnson DH (2010) The use of platelet-rich plasma in arthroscopy and sports medicine: optimizing the healing environment. Arthroscopy 26(2):269–278PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Loredo R, Sanders TG (2001) Imaging of osteochondral injuries. Clin Sports Med 20(2):249–278PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Lyras DN, Kazakos K, Verettas D et al (2009) The effect of platelet-rich plasma gel in the early phase of patellar tendon healing. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 129(11):1577–1582PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Lyras DN, Kazakos K, Verettas D, Chronopoulos E, Folaranmi S, Agrogiannis G (2010) Effect of combined administration of transforming growth factor-b1 and insulin-like growth factor I on the mechanical properties of a patellar tendon defect model in rabbits. Acta Orthop Belg 76(3):380–386PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Magnussen RA, Carey JL, Spindler KP (2011) Does autograft choice determine intermediate-term outcome of ACL reconstruction? Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 19(3):462–472PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Mair SD, Seaber AV, Glisson RR et al (1996) The role of fatigue in susceptibility to acute muscle strain injury. Am J Sports Med 24:137–143PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Mardones R (2011) Effects of Platelet‐Rich Plasma (PRP) on the management of early postoperative pain and inflammation following hip arthroscopy in patients with femoroacetabular impingement: a prospective, double blinded, randomized, placebo controlled, clinical trial. ISHA 2011, ParisGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Matava M (1996) Patellar tendon ruptures. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 4:287–296PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Mei-Dan O, Lopez V, Carmont MR, McConkey MO, Steinbacher G, Alvarez PD, Cugat RB (2013) Adductor tenotomy as a treatment for groin pain in professional soccer players. Orthopedics 36(9):e1189–e1197PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Mintz DN, Tashjian GS, Connell DA, Deland JT, O’Malley M, Potter HG (2003) Osteochondral lesions of the talus: a new magnetic resonance grading system with arthroscopic correlation. Arthroscopy 19(4):353–359PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Mishra A, Pavelko T (2006) Treatment of chronic elbow tendinosis with buffered platelet-rich plasma. Am J Sports Med 34(11):1774–1778PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Molsa J, Airaksinen O, Nasman O, Torstilla I (1997) Ice hockey injuries in Finland: a prospective epidemiologic study. Am J Sports Med 25:495–499PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Murawski CD, Kennedy JG (2013) Operative treatment of osteochondral lesions of the talus. J Bone Joint Surg Am 95(11):1045–1054PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Nakasa T, Adachi N, Shibuya H, Okuhara A, Ochi M (2013) Evaluation of joint position sense measured by inversion angle replication error in patients with an osteochondral lesion of the talus. J Foot Ankle Surg 52(3):331–334PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Navid DO, Myerson MS (2002) Approach alternatives for treatment of osteochondral lesions of the talus. Foot Ankle Clin 7(3):635–649PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Niemeyer P, Salzmann G, Schmal H, Mayr H, Südkamp NP (2012) Autologous chondrocyte implantation for the treatment of chondral and osteochondral defects of the talus: a meta-analysis of available evidence. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 20(9):1696–1703PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Nin JR, Gasque GM, Azcárate AV et al (2009) Has platelet-rich plasma any role in anterior cruciate ligament allograft healing? Arthroscopy 25(11):1206–1213PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Noyes FR, Butler DL, Grood ES (1984) Biomechanical analysis of human ligament grafts used in knee-ligament repairs and reconstructions. J Bone Joint Surg Am 66(3):344–352PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Nurden AT (2011) Platelets, inflammation and tissue regeneration. Thromb Haemost 105(Suppl 1):S13–S33PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Orr JD, Dutton JR, Fowler JT (2012) Anatomic location and morphology of symptomatic, operatively treated osteochondral lesions of the talus. Foot Ankle Int 33(12):1051–1057PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Orrego M, Larrain C, Rosales J et al (2008) Effects of platelet concentrate and bone plug on the healing of hamstring tendons in bone tunnel. Arthroscopy 24:1373–1380PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Paul J, Sagstetter M, Lämmle L, Spang J, El-Azab H, Imhoff AB, Hinterwimmer S (2012) Sports activity after osteochondral transplantation of the talus. Am J Sports Med 40(4):870–874PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Peerbooms JC, Sluimer J, Bruijn DJ, Gosens T (2010) Positive effect of an autologous platelet concentrate in lateral epicondylitis in a double-blind randomized controlled trial: platelet rich plasma versus corticosteroid injection with a 1-year follow-up. Am J Sports Med 38(2):255–262PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Peetrons P (2002) Ultrasound of muscles. Eur Radiol 12(1):35–43PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Peterson L, Renstrom P (1986) Sports injuries: their prevention and treatment. Year Book Medical Publishers, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Philippon M, Schenker M, Briggs K, Kuppersmith D (2007) Femoroacetabular impingement in 45 professional athletes: associated pathologies and return to sport following arthroscopic decompression. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 15(7):908–914PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Pollard TC, Villar RN, Norton MR, Fern ED, Williams MR, Simpson DJ, Murray DW, Carr AJ (2010) Femoroacetabular impingement and classification of the cam deformity: the reference interval in normal hips. Acta Orthop 81(1):134–141PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Radice F, Yánez R, Gutiérrez V et al (2010) Comparison of magnetic resonance imaging findings in anterior cruciate ligament grafts with and without autologous platelet-derived growth factors. Arthroscopy 26(1):50–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Raikin SM, Elias I, Zoga AC, Morrison WB, Besser MP, Schweitzer ME (2007) Osteochondral lesions of the talus: localization and morphologic data from 424 patients using a novel anatomical grid scheme. Foot Ankle Int 28(2):154–161PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Randelli PS, Arrigoni P, Cabitza P et al (2008) Autologous platelet rich plasma for arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: a pilot study. Disabil Rehabil 30(20–22):1584–1589Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Reed GL, Fitzgerald ML, Polgár J (2000) Molecular mechanisms of platelet exocytosis: insights into the “secrete” life of thrombocytes. Blood 96(10):3334–3342PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Rougraff BT, Shelbourne KD (1999) Early histologic appearance of human patellar tendon autografts used for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 7:9–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Sánchez M, Anitua E, Andia I (2005) Application of autologous growth factors on skeletal muscle healing. Presented at 2nd world congress on regenerative medicine, Liepzig, 18–20 May 2005Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Sánchez M, Anitua E, Azofra J, Andía I, Padilla S, Mujika I (2007) Comparison of surgically repaired Achilles tendon tears using platelet-rich fibrin matrices. Am J Sports Med 35(2):245–251PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Sánchez M, Anitua E, Azofra J, Prado R, Muruzabal F, Andia I (2010) Ligamentization of tendon grafts treated with an endogenous preparation rich in growth factors: gross morphology and histology. Arthroscopy 26(4):470–480PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Sánchez M, Guadilla J, Fiz N, Andia I (2012) Ultrasound-guided platelet-rich plasma injections for the treatment of osteoarthritis of the hip. Rheumatology (Oxford) 51(1):144–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Schimmer RC, Dick W, Hintermann B (2001) The role of ankle arthroscopy in the treatment strategies of osteochondritis dissecans lesions of the talus. Foot Ankle Int 22(11):895–900PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Schnabel LV, Mohammed HO, Miller BJ, McDermott WG, Jacobson MS, Santangelo KS, Fortier LA (2007) Platelet rich plasma (PRP) enhances anabolic gene expression patterns in flexor digitorum superficialis tendons. J Orthop Res 25(2):230–240PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Scranton PE Jr, Frey CC, Feder KS (2006) Outcome of osteochondral autograft transplantation for type-V cystic osteochondral lesions of the talus. J Bone Joint Surg Br 88(5):614–619PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Seijas R, Alvarez P, Ares O, Steinbacher G, Cuscó X, Cugat R (2010) Osteocartilaginous lesions of the talus in soccer players. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 130:329–333PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Seijas R, Ares O, Catala J, Alvarez-Diaz P, Cusco X, Cugat R (2013) Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of patellar tendon graft remodelling after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with or without platelet-rich plasma. J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong) 21(1):10–14Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Seijas R, Ares O, Cuscó X, Alvarez P, Steinbacher G, Cugat R (2014) Partial anterior cruciate ligament tears treated with intraligamentary plasma rich in growth factors. World J Orthop 5(3):373–378PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Seijas R, Rius M, Ares O, García-Balletbó M, Serra I, Cugat R (2015) Healing of donor site in bone-tendon-bone ACL reconstruction accelerated with plasma rich in growth factors: a randomized clinical trial. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 23(4):991–997Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Seil R, Rupp S, Pape D, Dienst M, Kohn D (2001) Approach to open treatment of osteochondral lesions of the talus. Orthopade 30(1):47–52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Seo SS, Park JY, Kim HJ, Yoon JW, Park SH, Kim KH (2012) Percutaneous osteoplasty for the treatment of a painful osteochondral lesion of the talus: a case report and literature review. Pain Physician 15(5):E743–E748PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Skendzel JG, Philippon MJ, Briggs KK, Goljan P (2014) The effect of joint space on midterm outcomes after arthroscopic hip surgery for femoroacetabular impingement. Am J Sports Med 42(5):1127–1133PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Silvis ML, Mosher TJ, Smetana BS, Chinchilli VM, Flemming DJ, Walker EA, Black KP (2011) High prevalence of pelvis and hip magnetic resonance imaging findings in asymptomatic collegiate and professional hockey players. Am J Sports Med 39(4):715–721PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Stellos K, Kopf S, Paul A, Marquardt JU, Gawaz M, Huard J, Langer HF (2010) Platelets in regeneration. Semin Thromb Hemost 36(2):175–184PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Stone DK (1998) Receptors: structure and function. Am J Med 105(3):244–250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Stroud CC, Marks RM (2000) Imaging of osteochondral lesions of the talus. Foot Ankle Clin 5(1):119–133PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Struijs PA, Tol JL, Bossuyt PM, Schuman L, van Dijk CN (2001) Treatment strategies in osteochondral lesions of the talus. Review of the literature. Orthopade 30(1):28–36PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Takao M, Uchio Y, Kakimaru H, Kumahashi N, Ochi M (2004) Arthroscopic drilling with debridement of remaining cartilage for osteochondral lesions of the talar dome in unstable ankles. Am J Sports Med 32(2):332–336PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Taylor DW, Petrera M, Hendry M, Theodoropoulos JS (2011) A systematic review of the use of platelet-rich plasma in sports medicine as a new treatment for tendon and ligament injuries. Clin J Sport Med 21(4):344–352PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Thermann H, Becher C (2004) Microfracture technique for treatment of osteochondral and degenerative chondral lesions of the talus 2-year results of a prospective study. Unfallchirurg 107(1):27–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Tol JL, Strijs PA, Bossuyt PM, Verhagen RA, van Dijk CN (2000) Treatment strategies in osteochondral defects of the talar dome: a systematic review. Foot Ankle Int 21(2):119–126PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Tsitskaris K, Sharif K, Meacock LM, Bansal M, Ayis S, Li PLS, Elias DA (2012) The prevalence of cam-type femoroacetabular morphology in young adults and its effect on functional hip scores. Hip Int 22(1):68–74PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    van Dijk CN, Reilingh ML, Zengerink M, van Bergen CJ (2010) The natural history of osteochondral lesions in the ankle. Instr Course Lect 59:375–386PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Vaquerizo V, Plasencia MÁ, Arribas I, Seijas R, Padilla S, Orive G, Anitua E (2013) Comparison of intra-articular injections of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF-Endoret) versus Durolane hyaluronic acid in the treatment of patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial. Arthroscopy 29(10):1635–1643PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Vega JA, García-Suárez O, Martínez Almagro A (2000) Cartílago articular y factores de crecimiento (primera parte). Mapfre Medicina 11:212–225Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Verhagen RA, Struijs PA, Bossuyt PM, van Dijk CN (2003) Systematic review of treatment strategies for osteochondral defects of the talar dome. Foot Ankle Clin 8(2):233–242, viii–ixPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Wang-Saegusa A, Cugat R, Ares O, Seijas R, Cuscó X, Garcia-Balletbó M (2011) Infiltration of plasma rich in growth factors for osteoarthritis of the knee short-term effects on function and quality of life. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 131(3):311–317PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Weibrich G, Kleis WK (2002) Curasan PRP kit vs PCCS PRP system: collection efficiency and platelets counts of two different methods for the preparation of platelet rich plasma. Clin Oral Implants 13:437–443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Weiler A, Förster C, Hunt P et al (2004) The influence of locally applied platelet-derived growth factor–BB on free tendon graft remodeling after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Am J Sports Med 32:881–891PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Wong P, Hong Y (2005) Soccer injury in the lower extremities. Br J Sports Med 39(8):473–482PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Woods C, Hawkins RD, Maltby S, Hulse M, Thomas A, Hodson A (2004) The football association medical research programme. An audit of injuries in professional football-analysis of hamstring injuries. Br J Sports Med 38(1):36–41PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Wright-Carpenter T, Klein P, Schaferhoff P, Appell HJ, Mir LM, Wehling P (2004) Treatment of muscle injuries by local administration of autologous conditioned serum: a pilot study on sportsmen with muscle strains. Int J Sports Med 25:588–593PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Xie X, Wu H, Zhao S, Xie G, Huangfu X, Zhao J (2013) The effect of platelet-rich plasma on patterns of gene expression in a dog model of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. J Surg Res 180(1):80–88PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Yasuda K, Tomita F, Yamazaki S, Minami A, Tohyama H (2004) The effect of growth factors on biomechanical properties of the bone-patellar tendon-bone graft after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a canine model study. Am J Sports Med 32(4):870–880PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Zengerink M, Szerb I, Hangody L, Dopirak RM, Ferkel RD, van Dijk CN (2006) Current concepts: treatment of osteochondral ankle defects. Foot Ankle Clin 11(2):331–359, viPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ramon Cugat
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    Email author
  • Xavier Cusco
    • 2
    • 3
  • Roberto Seijas
    • 5
    • 3
    • 4
  • Pedro Alvarez
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Gilbert Steinbacher
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Marta Rius
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Mutualidad de FutbolistasReal Federacion Espanola de FutbolBarcelonaSpain
  2. 2.Chair of Medicine and Regenerative SurgeryGarcia Cugat Foundation and CEU Cardenal Herrera UniversityAlfara del Patriarca, ValenciaSpain
  3. 3.Department of Orthopaedic SurgerySports Medicine and Trauma, Hospital Quiron Barcelona, Artroscopia gc,S.LBarcelonaSpain
  4. 4.Facultad de MedicinaUniversitat Internacional de CatalunyaBarcelonaSpain
  5. 5.Chair of Medicine and Regenerative SurgeryGarcia Cugat Foundation & CEU Cardenal Herrera UniversityAlfara del Patriarca, ValenciaSpain

Personalised recommendations