Knee Cartilage Repair

  • Lars G. PetersonEmail author
  • Haris S. VasiliadisEmail author


The incidence of the injuries of knee articular cartilage is found to be increasing among athletes, especially of contact sports like football. It has been shown that foul play is responsible for about 30 % of all injuries and that knee injuries are among the most common injuries and may be career ending.

A careful assessment of the patient-player is required along with a detailed discussion of the treatment options, the possibilities, the anticipated outcomes and all the parameters related to the anticipated rehabilitation time, the complication rate and the potential long term impact on the knee joint. The treatment strategy is usually individualized according to many factors, including the priorities of the patient-athlete. There are three main treatment groups that may differ in the approach and treatment possibilities and also prognosis; the teenage player in the beginning of his career, the established player in his active career between 20–35 years and the player in the end of his career or post career.

Generally, the currently available evidence shows a superiority of ACI in terms of return to sports, return to preinjury levels and durability of good outcomes. However, the ACI is a two stage operation, associated with a longer and more demanding rehabilitation protocol. On the other hand, although MF is associated with a less postoperative morbidity and a short term good outcome may be observed, it is associated with a lower sports performance, higher rate of retirement and long term deterioration of the clinical outcomes. Regarding MP-OATS, although good results have been reported, there is not much evidence to allow for safe conclusions.


Cartilage Subchondral bone Osteochondritis dissecans Femoral condyle Autologous chondrocyte implantation 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of OrthopaedicsSahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg UniversityGothenburgSweden
  2. 2.Department of OrthopaedicsUniversity of IoanninaIoanninaGreece

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