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The Role of Nutritional Supplements Complementing Nutrient-Dense Diets: General Versus Sport/Exercise-Specific Dietary Guidelines Related to Energy Expenditure

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A nutrient-dense diet is a critical aspect in attaining optimal exercise training, recovery, and athletic performance outcomes. While including safe and effective nutritional supplements in the dietary design can be extremely helpful in promoting adequate caloric and nutrient ingestion, they are not a complete cure in promoting adequate caloric ingestion based on individualized caloric expenditure needs without the proper diet. Specifically, a strategic and scientifically based nutrient-dense dietary profile should be created by qualified professionals to meet the sport/exercise-specific energy and nutrient demands of any individual involved in select training intensity protocols. Finally, ingesting the right quantity and quality of nutrient-dense calories at precise windows of opportunity becomes vital in attaining desired training and/or competitive performance outcomes.


  • Nutrient dense
  • Nutritional Supplements
  • Caloric intake
  • Caloric expenditure
  • Nutrient timing
  • Restoration
  • Macronutrient profiles

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Correspondence to Susan M. Kleiner PhD, RD, CNS, FISSN .

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Kleiner, S.M., Greenwood, M. (2015). The Role of Nutritional Supplements Complementing Nutrient-Dense Diets: General Versus Sport/Exercise-Specific Dietary Guidelines Related to Energy Expenditure. In: Greenwood, M., Cooke, M., Ziegenfuss, T., Kalman, D., Antonio, J. (eds) Nutritional Supplements in Sports and Exercise. Springer, Cham.

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