Skip to main content

Breastfeeding Evaluation: The Physical Exam

  • Chapter
Clinician’s Guide to Breastfeeding
  • 1470 Accesses

Abstract

This chapter covers pertinent elements of the physical exam of the mother/breasts, baby and the mother-baby dyad. Most breastfeeding issues are complex and arise from a combination of factors, so all must be considered.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 64.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 84.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

References

  • Abraham R, Kamath G. Midline diastema and its aetiology – a review. Dent Update. 2014;41(5):457–60. 462–4.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Amir LH, James JP, Donath SM. Reliability of the hazelbaker assessment tool for lingual frenulum function. Int Breastfeed J. 2006;1(1):3.

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Anderson JE, Held N, Wright K. Raynaud’s phenomenon of the nipple: a treatable cause of painful breastfeeding. Pediatrics. 2004;113(4):e360–4.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Arthur PG, Hartmann PE, Smith M. Measurement of the milk intake of breast-fed infants. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 1987;6(5):758–63.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Baart JA, Bosgra JF. A too short superior labial frenum. Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd. 2004;111(5):174–8.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Barrett ME, Heller MM, Stone HF, Murase JE. Raynaud phenomenon of the nipple in breastfeeding mothers: an underdiagnosed cause of nipple pain. JAMA Dermatol. 2013;149(3):300–6.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Baudon JJ, Renault F, Goutet JM, Flores-Guevara R, Soupre V, Gold F, Vazquez MP. Motor dysfunction of the upper digestive tract in Pierre Robin sequence as assessed by sucking-swallowing electromyography and esophageal manometry. J Pediatr. 2002;140(6):719–23.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Chu M, Bloom D. Posterior ankyloglossia: a case report. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2009. doi:10.1016/j.ijporl.2009.02.011.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Coryllos E, Genna C, Salloum A. Congenital tongue-tie and its impact on breastfeeding. AAP Section on Breastfeeding Newsletter Summer; 2004.

    Google Scholar 

  • Flavahan NA. A vascular mechanistic approach to understanding Raynaud phenomenon. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2015;11(3):146–58. doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2014.195.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Garbin CP, Deacon JP, Rowan MK, Hartmann PE, Geddes DT. Association of nipple piercing with abnormal milk production and breastfeeding. JAMA. 2009;301(24):2550–1. doi:10.1001/jama.2009.877.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Geddes D, Langton D, Gollow I, Jacobs L, Hartmann P, Simmer K. Frenulotomy for breastfeeding infants with ankyloglossia: effects on milk removal and sucking mechanism as imaged by ultrasound. Pediatrics. 2008;122:e188–94.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Geddes DT, Kent JC, McClellan HL, Garbin CP, Chadwick LM, Hartmann PE. Sucking characteristics of successfully breastfeeding infants with ankyloglossia: a case series. Acta Paediatr. 2010;99(2):301–3. doi:10.1111/j.1651-2227.2009.01577.x.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Genna CW. Breastfeeding infants with congenital torticollis. J Hum Lact. 2015;31(2):216–20.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Genna CW, Coryllos EV. Breastfeeding and tongue-tie. J Hum Lact. 2009;25(1):111–2. doi:10.1177/08903344090250011501.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Glass RP, Wolf LS. Incoordination of sucking, swallowing and breathing as an etiology for breastfeeding difficulty. J Hum Lact. 1992;10(3):185–9.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hazelbaker AK. The assessment tool for lingual frenulum function (ATLFF): use in a lactation consultant private practice. Pasadena, CA: Pacific Oaks College; 1993. Thesis

    Google Scholar 

  • Heller MM, Fullerton-Stone H, Murase JE. Caring for new mothers: diagnosis, management and treatment of nipple dermatitis in breastfeeding mothers. Int J Dermatol. 2012;51(10):1149–61. doi:10.1111/j.1365-4632.2011.05445.x.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Huggins K, Petok E, Mireles O. Markers of lactation insufficiency: a study of 34 mothers. Current issues in clinical lactation; 2000. p. 25–35. http://www.sonic.net/~mollyf/igt/.

  • Hurst N, Tucker K. Diagnosing ankyloglossia. J Hum Lact. 2013;29(3):423.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kotlow LA. Diagnosing and understanding the maxillary lip-tie (superior labial, the maxillary labial frenum) as it relates to breastfeeding. J Hum Lact. 2013;29(4):458–64. doi:10.1177/0890334413491325.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • LeVan Fram J. Helping your baby with torticollis. J Hum Lact. 2011;27(4):399–400.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Luz CL, Garib DG, Arouca R. Association between breastfeeding duration and mandibular retrusion: a cross-sectional study of children in the mixed dentition. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2006;130(4):531–4.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Mazzocchi A, Clini F. Indications for therapy of labial frenum. Pediatr Med Chir. 1992;14(6):637–40.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Messner A, Lalakea M, Aby J, Macmahon J, Bair E. Ankylossia: incidence and associated feeding difficulties. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2000;126:36–9.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Neifert MR, Seacat JM, Jobe WE. Lactation failure due to insufficient glandular development of the breast. Pediatrics. 1985;76(5):823–8.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Osteopathic Cranial Academy. www.cranialacademy.com. Accessed 32 Mar 2015.

  • Palit G, Jacquemyn Y, Kerremans M. An objective measurement to diagnose micrognathia on prenatal ultrasound. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 2008;35(2):121–3.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Reid J, Kilpatrick N, Reilly S. A prospective, longitudinal study of feeding skills in a cohort of babies with cleft conditions. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2006;43(6):702–9.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Reilly S, Reid J, Skeat J, Cahir P, Mei C, Bunik M. ABM clinical protocol #18: guidelines for breastfeeding infants with cleft lip, cleft palate, or cleft lip and palate. Breastfeed Med. 2013;8(4):349–53. doi:10.1089/bfm.2013.9988.

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ricke L, Baker N, Madlon-Kay D, DeFor T. Newborn tongue-tie: prevalence and effect on breast-feeding. J Am Board Fam Pract. 2005;18:1–7.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Rotten D, Levaillant JM, Martinez H, Ducou le Pointe H, Vicaut E. The fetal mandible: a 2D and 3D sonographic approach to the diagnosis of retrognathia and micrognathia. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2002;19(2):122–30.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Wall V, Glass R. Mandibular asymmetry and breastfeeding problems: experience from 11 cases. J Hum Lact. 2006;22(3):328–34.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Wu M, Chason R, Wong M. Raynaud’s phenomenon of the nipple. Obstet Gynecol. 2012;119(2 Pt 2):447–9. doi:10.1097/AOG.0b013e31822c9a73.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2015 Springer International Publishing Switzerland

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Dahl, L. (2015). Breastfeeding Evaluation: The Physical Exam. In: Clinician’s Guide to Breastfeeding. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-18194-3_6

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-18194-3_6

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-319-18193-6

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-319-18194-3

  • eBook Packages: MedicineMedicine (R0)

Publish with us

Policies and ethics