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Description of the Working Field

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Part of the Springer Series in Advanced Manufacturing book series (SSAM)

Abstract

Computing miniaturization, communication networks and smart devices decentralise manufacturing. Various propositions of novel ICT continue to push virtualizations and atomisation of resources, so manufacturing increasingly relies on smart autonomous units enforcing a number of unexpected manufacturing network principles. Hierarchical set ups with command and control structures become outdated; they are replaced by bottom up (self-) configuring versatile networks, as proposed by Distributed Manufacturing. Distributed Manufacturing has impact on a number of manufacturing fundamentals, as the approach is about to generalise distributed automation to manufacturing industry in total. Matching manufacturing fundamentals with the latest ICT achievements irrefutably confirms Cyber Physical Systems (CPS), machine to machine (M2M), RFID and Cloud computing solutions as utmost adequate technology for highly efficient manufacturing processes and cutting edge factory solutions. Especially, real time data and item localisation are changing the game and laying ground for iterative intelligent decision-making and for gradual manufacturing network (re-)configurations. All these developments are additionally flanked by coalescing technology fields, as new materials and nanotechnology, underpinning the dynamics of interdisciplinarity in manufacturing. Smart units in manufacturing are now able to absorb the intelligence, which has been already displayed in distributed industrial automation, for implementations in comprehensive industrial manufacturing contexts. An adequate framework to capture all aspects has to consist of a set of interacting formal models that include both, the real manufacturing objects as well as their virtualisations.

Keywords

  • Ubiquitous Computing
  • Wireless Body Area Network
  • Private Cloud
  • Smart Object
  • Manufacturing Cloud

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Fig. 2.1

Notes

  1. 1.

    Technologies for realizing IoT devices have already been around for years, and have been standardized by the IETF, starting from the lower layers of the stack and moving up. Today, we have IPv6 as a foundation running over links such as those found in mobile networks (2G, 3G and LTE) as well as low power local area sensor networks such as IEEE 802.15.4/6LoWPAN and EPICS. The implementation can be based on multiple agent languages and platforms (JADE, JADEX, LEAP, MAPS) on heterogeneous computing systems (computers, smartphones, sensor nodes).

  2. 2.

    In 2008, an open group of companies launched the IPSO Alliance to promote the use of Internet Protocol (IP) in networks of “smart objects” (http://www.ipv6forum.com/index.php.) As different definitions of IoT do currently exist, for manufacturing purposes it is useful to refer to IoT as a loosely coupled and decentralized system of smart objects (SOs), which are autonomous physical/digital objects augmented with sensing/actuating, positioning, processing, and networking capabilities.

  3. 3.

    ZigBee Home Automation is the industry leading global standard helping to create smarter homes that enhance comfort, convenience, security and energy management for the consumer. It appears to be the technology of choice for world-leading service providers, installers and retailers, http://www.zigbee.org/.

  4. 4.

    The applications of M2M communications extraordinarily depend on many technologies across multiple industries. The technical standardizations for M2M are proceeding in 3GPP, IEEE, TIA, and ETSI. The ETSI drafting standards for information and communications technologies consider an M2M network as a five-part structure http://www.etsi.org/website/homepage.aspx.

    1. (1)

      Devices, usually are embedded in a smart device to reply to requests or send data.

    2. (2)

      Gateway, acts as an entrance to another network. It provides device inter-working and inter-connection.

    3. (3)

      M2M area network, furnishes connection between all kinds of intelligent devices and gateways.

    4. (4)

      Communication networks, achieve connections between gateways and applications.

    5. (5)

      Applications and services pass data through various application services and are used by the specific business-processing engines. Software agents analyze data, take action and report data.

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Kühnle, H., Bitsch, G. (2015). Description of the Working Field. In: Foundations & Principles of Distributed Manufacturing. Springer Series in Advanced Manufacturing. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-18078-6_2

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-18078-6_2

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