Language Resources and Linked Data: A Practical Perspective

  • Jorge Gracia
  • Daniel Vila-Suero
  • John P. McCrae
  • Tiziano Flati
  • Ciro Baron
  • Milan Dojchinovski
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 8982)


Recently, experts and practitioners in language resources have started recognizing the benefits of the linked data (LD) paradigm for the representation and exploitation of linguistic data on the Web. The adoption of the LD principles is leading to an emerging ecosystem of multilingual open resources that conform to the Linguistic Linked Open Data Cloud, in which datasets of linguistic data are interconnected and represented following common vocabularies, which facilitates linguistic information discovery, integration and access. In order to contribute to this initiative, this paper summarizes several key aspects of the representation of linguistic information as linked data from a practical perspective. The main goal of this document is to provide the basic ideas and tools for migrating language resources (lexicons, corpora, etc.) as LD on the Web and to develop some useful NLP tasks with them (e.g., word sense disambiguation). Such material was the basis of a tutorial imparted at the EKAW’14 conference, which is also reported in the paper.


Linked data Language resources Multilingual web of data 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Archer, P., Goedertier, S., Loutas, N.: Study on persistent URIs. Technical report, December 2012Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bizer, C., Heath, T., Berners-Lee, T.: Linked data - the story so far. International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems (IJSWIS) 5(3), 1–22 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bizer, C., Lehmann, J., Kobilarov, G., Auer, S., Becker, C., Cyganiak, R., Hellmann, S.: DBpedia - a crystallization point for the web of data. Web Semantics: Science, Services and Agents on the World Wide Web 7(3), 154–165 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chiarcos, C., Nordhoff, S., Hellmann, S. (eds.) Linked Data in Linguistics - Representing and Connecting Language Data and Language Metadata. Springer (2012)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cimiano, P., Buitelaar, P., McCrae, J.P., Sintek, M.: LexInfo: A declarative model for the lexicon-ontology interface. Web Semantics: Science, Services and Agents on the World Wide Web 9(1), 29–51 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Eckle-Kohler, J., McCrae, J.P., Chiarcos, C.: LemonUby-A large, interlinked, syntactically-rich lexical resource for ontologies. Semantic Web Journal-Special issue on Multilingual Linked Open Data (2015)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ehrmann, M., Cecconi, F., Vannella, D., McCrae, J.P., Cimiano, P., Navigli, R.: Representing Multilingual Data as Linked Data: the Case of BabelNet 2.0. In Proceedings of the 9th Language Resource and Evaluation Conference, pp. 401–408 (2014)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gracia, J., Montiel-Ponsoda, E., Vila-Suero, D., Aguado-de Cea, G.: Enabling language resources to expose translations as linked data on the web. In Proc. of 9th Language Resources and Evaluation Conference (LREC 2014), Reykjavik (Iceland), pp. 409–413. European Language Resources Association (ELRA), May 2014Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hellmann, S., Lehmann, J., Auer, S., Brümmer, M.: Integrating NLP using linked data. In: Alani, H., Kagal, L., Fokoue, A., Groth, P., Biemann, C., Parreira, J.X., Aroyo, L., Noy, N., Welty, C., Janowicz, K. (eds.) ISWC 2013, Part II. LNCS, vol. 8219, pp. 98–113. Springer, Heidelberg (2013) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Manola, F., Miller, E.: RDF primer. Technical report, W3C Recommendation (February 2004)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    McCrae, J.P., Aguado-de Cea, G., Buitelaar, P., Cimiano, P., Declerck, T., Gómez-Pérez, A., Gracia, J., Hollink, L., Montiel-Ponsoda, E., Spohr, D., et al.: Interchanging lexical resources on the semantic web. Language Resources and Evaluation 46(4), 701–719 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    McCrae, J.P., Unger, C., Quattri, F., Cimiano, P.: Modelling the semantics of adjectives in the ontology-lexicon interface. In: Proceedings of 4th Workshop on Cognitive Aspects of the Lexicon (2014)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    McCrae, J.P., Fellbaum, C., Cimiano, P.: Publishing and linking wordnet Dusing lemon and RDF. In: Proceedings of the 3rd Workshop on Linked Data in Linguistics (2014)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Miller, G.: WordNet: A Lexical Database for English. Communications of the ACM 38(11), November 1995Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Montiel-Ponsoda, E., Aguado de Cea, G., Gómez-Pérez, A., Peters, W.: Modelling multilinguality in ontologies. In: Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on Computational Linguistics, pp. 67–70 (2008)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Moro, A., Raganato, A., Navigli, R.: Entity Linking meets Word Sense Disambiguation: a Unified Approach. Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics (TACL) 2, 231–244 (2014)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Navigli, R., Ponzetto, S.P.: BabelNet: The automatic construction, evaluation and application of a wide-coverage multilingual semantic network. Artificial Intelligence 193, 217–250 (2012)CrossRefzbMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Unger, C., Bühmann, L., Lehmann, J., Ngonga Ngomo, A.-C., Gerber, D., Cimiano, P.: Template-based question answering over RDF data. In: Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on World Wide Web, pp. 639–648 (2012)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Vila-Suero, D., Gómez-Pérez, A., Montiel-Ponsoda, E., Gracia, J., Aguado-de Cea, G.: Publishing linked data: the multilingual dimension. In: Cimiano, P., Buitelaar, P. (eds.) Towards the Multilingual Semantic Web, pp. 101–118. Springer (2014)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Villazón-Terrazas, B., Vilches, L., Corcho, O., Gómez-Pérez, A.: Methodological guidelines for publishing government linked data. In: Wood, D. (ed.) Linking Government Data, ch. 2. Springer (2011)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jorge Gracia
    • 1
  • Daniel Vila-Suero
    • 1
  • John P. McCrae
    • 2
  • Tiziano Flati
    • 3
  • Ciro Baron
    • 4
  • Milan Dojchinovski
    • 5
  1. 1.Ontology Engineering GroupUniversidad Politécnica de MadridMadridSpain
  2. 2.CITECUniversity of BielefeldBielefeldGermany
  3. 3.LCLSapienza Università di RomaRomaItaly
  4. 4.AKSWUniversity of LeipzigLeipzigGermany
  5. 5.Czech Technical University in PraguePrahaCzech Republic

Personalised recommendations