A Comprehensive View of the 21st Century City: Smartness as Technologies and Innovation in Urban Contexts
This chapter introduces important concepts such as smart cities, innovation, technologies, and “smartness” in government. It argues that a concept of smart city should be more than the use of information technologies in local governments. The study and analysis of cities today requires a multidimensional and multifaceted concept and, therefore, multiple components. Some of these components are (1) public services, (2) city administration and management, (3) policies and other institutional arrangements, (4) governance and collaboration, (5) human capital and creativity, (6) knowledge economy and pro-business environment, (7) built environment and city infrastructure, (8) natural environment and ecological sustainability, (9) ICT and other technologies, and (10) data and information. In addition, the authors refer to smartness as public sector innovation in urban contexts. A comprehensive view of a smart city should encompass government innovation in management and policy as well as technology and must acknowledge how the context of a city shapes the data and the technological, organizational, and policy aspects of a specific initiative. The chapter also briefly describes the content and the target audience of this book.
KeywordsSmart city Information technologies Innovation Smart government Urban context Digital government Electronic government Smartness Data Organizational change Policy
- AlAwadhi, S., Aldama-Nalda, A., Chourabi, H., Gil-Garcia, J. R., Leung, S., Mellouli, S., et al. (2012). Building understanding of smart city initiatives. In Proceedings of EGOV 2012 (pp. 40–53).Google Scholar
- Bartlett, L. (2005). Smart city: Social entrepreneurship and community engagement in a rural regional city. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Engaging Communities, Brisbane, Australia, August 14–17.Google Scholar
- Bertot, J. C., Jaeger, P. T., & Grimes, J. M. (2010a). Crowd-sourcing transparency: ICTs, social media, and government transparency initiatives. In Proceedings of the 11th Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research (pp. 51–58). Puebla, Mexico, May 17–20.Google Scholar
- Boulton, A., Brunn, S. D., & Devriendt, L. (2011). Cyberinfrastructures and “smart” world cities: Physical, human, and soft infrastructures. In P. Taylor, B. Derudder, M. Hoyler, & F. Witlox (Eds.), International handbook of globalization and world cities. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
- Chourabi, H., Nam, T., Walker, S., Gil-Garcia, J. R., Mellouli, S., Nahon, K., et al. (2012). Understanding smart cities: An integrative framework. In Proceedings of the 45th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (pp. 2289–2297), January 4–7, Maui, Hawaii, USA.Google Scholar
- Eger, J. M. (2009). Smart growth, smart cities, and the crisis at the pump a worldwide phenomenon. I-Ways, 32(1), 47–53.Google Scholar
- Giffinger, R., Fertner, C., Kramar, H., Kalasek, R., Pichler-Milanović, N., & Meijers, E. (2007). Smart cities: Ranking of European medium-sized cities. Vienna: Centre of Regional Science (SRF), Vienna University of Technology.Google Scholar
- Gil-Garcia, J. R. (2012). Towards a smart state? Inter-agency collaboration, information integration, and beyond. Information Polity, 17(3–4), 269–280.Google Scholar
- Gil-Garcia, J. R., Helbig, N., & Ojo, A. (2014). Being smart: Emerging technologies and innovation in the public sector. Government Information Quarterly, 31(S1), 11–18.Google Scholar
- Hase, J. (2014). Smart city integration: Why open IT architectures are key (industry perspective). Deutsche Telekom, Government Technology. http://www.govtech.com/data/Smart-City-integration-Why-open-IT-architectures-are-key.html Accessed 10 Oct 2014.
- Johnston, E. W., & Hansen, D. L. (2011). Design lessons for smart governance infrastructures. In A. Balutis, T. F. Buss, & D. Ink (Eds.), Transforming American Governance: Rebooting the public square (pp. 197–212). Armonk: M.E. Sharpe.Google Scholar
- Komninos, N. (2002). Intelligent cities. London: Spon Press.Google Scholar
- Landry, C. (2000). The creative city: A toolkit for urban innovation. London: Earthscan.Google Scholar
- Marshall, A. (2014). Are cities losing control over ‘smart’ initiatives? (opinion), Government Technology, published March 4, 2014. http://www.govtech.com/data/Are-Cities-Losing-Control-Over-Smart-Initiatives-Opinion.html Accessed 10 Oct 2014.
- Nam, T., & Pardo, T. A. (2011). Smart city as urban innovation: Focusing on management, policy, and context. In Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Theory and Practice of Electronic Governance, September 26–28, Tallinn, Estonia.Google Scholar
- Nam, T., & Pardo, T. A. (2011a). Conceptualizing smart city with dimensions of technology, people, and institutions. In Proceedings of the 12th Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research, DG.O 2011, College Park, MD, USA, June 12–15, 2011; 01/2011.Google Scholar
- Newcombe, T. (2014). Can we trust smart cities? Government Technology, published June 2. http://www.govtech.com/data/Can-We-Trust-Smart-Cities.html?utm_source=related&utm_medium=direct&utm_campaign=Can-We-Trust-Smart-Cities. Accessed 10 Oct 2014.
- Noveck, B. S. (2009). Wiki Government: How technology can make Government better, democracy stronger, and citizens more powerful. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.Google Scholar
- Scholl, H. J., & Scholl, M. C. (2014). Smart governance: A roadmap for research and practice. iConference 2014 (pp. 163–176). http://dx.doi.org/10.9776/14060.
- Scott, W. R. (2008). Institutions and organizations: Ideas and interests (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
- Švob-Dokia, N. (Ed.). (2007). The creative city: Crossing visions and new realities in the region. Zagreb: Institute for International Relations. http://www.culturelink.org/publics/joint/cultid08/Svob-Djokic_Creative_City.pdf. Accessed 10 Oct 2014.Google Scholar
- Van Winden, W. (2008). Urban governance in the knowledge-based economy: Challenges for different city types. Innovation: Management, Policy & Practice, 10(2–3), 197–210.Google Scholar
- Van Winden, W. (2010). Knowledge and the European city. Journal of Economic & Social Geography, 101(1), 100–106.Google Scholar
- Washburn, D., Sindhu, U., Balaouras, S., Dines, R. A., Hayes, N. M., & Nelson, L. E. (2010). Helping CIOs understand “Smart City” initiatives: Defining the smart city, its drivers, and the role of the CIO. Cambridge: Forrester Research.Google Scholar
- Willke, H. (2007). Smart governance: Governing the global knowledge society. Frankfurt a. M.: Campus.Google Scholar