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Therapeutic Impact of Immune Responses in Cancer

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Part of the Resistance to Targeted Anti-Cancer Therapeutics book series (RTACT, volume 6)

Abstract

Therapeutic targeted oncoimmunology has a long history reaching back to the nineteenth century and represents the basis of modern tumor immunology. Cell biological and molecular genetic techniques have uncovered crucial cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying effective cancer immunotherapies used in the clinic. To illustrate the scientific way that led to actual insights into the molecular and cellular approaches realized in recent cancer therapies, this chapter introduces into the history of oncoimmunology. Experimental findings of adoptive cell transfer-based cancer therapy are summarized under functional, immunological aspects. An actual overview of the antitumor prosperity of all genetically engineered tumor cells expressing recombinant cytokines which were characterized by animal experiments is given. The application of antigen-presenting cells which are triple transgenic for immune stimulatory cytokines, tumor specific antigens, and the correlated major histocompatibility complex class I necessary for tumor antigen presentation is explained exemplarily. A recent experimental animal model characterizing critical parameters for preconditioning the host prior to ACT of transgenic T cells and essential therapeutic conditions is described.

Keywords

Adoptive cell transfer Animal model Cytokine Effector cells Immune evasion Immune surveillance Transgene Tumor-specific antigen 

Abbreviations

ACT

Adoptive cell transfer

DCs

Dendritic cells

GM-CSF

Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor

HSCT

Hematological stem cell transplantation

IFN-γ

Interferon-gamma

IL

Interleukin

LAK cells

Lymphokine activated killer cells

MCA

Methylcholanthrene

NK cells

Natural killer cells

MHC

Major histocompatibility complex

M-MuLV

Moloney murine leukemia virus

MMTV

Mouse mammary tumor virus

RAG-2

Recombination-activating gene-2

SCID

Severe combined immunodeficiency

TILs

Tumor-infiltrating leukocytes

TAAs

Tumor-associated antigens

Tcyt

Cytotoxic T cells

TH cells

T Helper cells

TH2 cells

TH type 2

TSCM cells

T memory cells

TCM cells

T central memory cells

TEM cells

T effector memory cells

TSAs

Tumor-specific antigens

Notes

Acknowledgement

Many thanks for helpful discussions to A. Bette and Prof. R. Mandic.

No Conflict Statement

No potential conflicts of interest were disclosed.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Molecular Neuroscience, Institute of Anatomy and Cell BiologyPhilipps UniversityMarburgGermany

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