Skip to main content

Conjugated Polymer Electroluminescent Materials

  • Chapter
  • First Online:
Organic Optoelectronic Materials

Part of the book series: Lecture Notes in Chemistry ((LNC,volume 91))


Polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) are promising devices for use in large-area, flat-panel displays and next-generation solid-state lighting because of the advantages of ease of fabrication and low production cost for the large-size devices. This chapter provides an overview of the recent development of polymer electroluminescent materials as the active layer in PLEDs. These polymer electroluminescent materials are reviewed according to the classification of traditional electroluminescent polymers, luminescent polymers based on dopant/host systems, hyperbranched polymers, and supramolecular luminescent polymers. Emphasis is placed on the relationships between molecular structure and device performance. Finally, some scientific problems and developing trends on PLEDs are discussed.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
USD 84.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Hardcover Book
USD 109.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others


  1. Tang CW, VanSlyke SA (1987) Organic electroluminescent diodes. Appl Phys Lett 51(12):913–915. doi:10.1063/1.98799

  2. Gong X, Wang S, Moses D, Bazan GC, Heeger AJ (2005) Multilayer polymer light-emitting diodes: white-light emission with high efficiency. Adv Mater 17(17):2053–2058. doi:10.1002/adma.200500727

  3. Sasabe H, Kido J (2013) Development of high performance OLEDs for general lighting. J Mater Chem C 1(9):1699–1707. doi:10.1039/C2TC00584K

  4. SAMSUNG (2013) Accessed 1 Feb 2014

  5. LG (2013) Accessed 1 Feb 2014

  6. Zeng WJ, Wu HB, Zhang C, Huang F, Peng JB, Yang W, Cao Y (2007) Polymer light-emitting diodes with cathodes printed from conducting Ag paste. Adv Mater 19(6): 810–814. doi:10.1002/adma.200602567

  7. Zheng H, Zheng Y, Liu N, Ai N, Wang Q, Wu S, Zhou J, Hu D, Yu S, Han S, Xu W, Luo C, Meng Y, Jiang Z, Chen Y, Li D, Huang F, Wang J, Peng J, Cao Y (2013) All-solution processed polymer light-emitting diode displays. Nat Commun 4:1971–1974. doi:10.1038/ncomms2971

  8. Burroughes JH, Bradley DDC, Brown AR, Marks RN, Mackay K, Friend RH, Burns PL, Holmes AB (1990) Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers. Nature 347(6293):539–541. doi:10.1038/347539a0

  9. Zhong CM, Duan CH, Huang F, Wu HB, Cao Y (2011) Highly efficient electron injection from Indium Tin Oxide/cross-linkable amino-functionalized polyfluorene interface in inverted organic light emitting devices. Chem Mater 23(21):4870–4876. doi:10.1021/cm2025685

  10. Grimsdale AC, Leok Chan K, Martin RE, Jokisz PG, Holmes AB (2009) Synthesis of light-emitting conjugated polymers for applications in electroluminescent devices. Chem Rev 109(3):897–1091. doi:10.1021/cr000013v

  11. Baldo MA, O’Brien DF, Thompson ME, Forrest SR (1999) Excitonic singlet-triplet ratio in a semiconducting organic thin film. Phys Rev B 60(20):14422–14428. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.60.14422

  12. Friend RH, Gymer RW, Holmes AB, Burroughes JH, Marks RN, Taliani C, Bradley DDC, Dos Santos DA, Bre das JL, LoÈ gdlund M, Salaneck WR (1999) Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers. Nature 397(6715):121–128. doi:10.1038/16393

  13. Thelakkat M (2002) Star-shaped, dendrimeric and polymeric triarylamines as photoconductors and hole transport materials for electro-optical applications. Macromol Mater Eng 287(7):442–461. doi:10.1002/1439-2054(20020701)

  14. Kulkarni AP, Tonzola CJ, Babel A, Jenekhe SA (2004) Electron transport materials for organic light-emitting diodes. Chem Mater 16(23):4556–4573. doi:10.1021/cm049473l

  15. Jing W-X, Kraft A, Moratti SC, Grüner J, Cacialli F, Hamer PJ, Holmes AB, Friend RH (1994) Synthesis of a polyphenylene light-emitting polymer. Synth Met 67(1-3):161–163. doi:10.1016/0379-6779(94)90032-9

  16. Fukuda M, Sawada K, Yoshino K (1993) Synthesis of fusible and soluble conducting polyfluorene derivatives and their characteristics. J Polym Sci Pol Chem 31(10):2465–2471. doi:10.1002/pola.1993.080311006

  17. Scherf U, List EJW (2002) Semiconducting polyfluorenes—towards reliable structure–property relationships. Adv Mater 14(7):477–487. doi:10.1002/1521-4095(20020404)14:7<477::AID-ADMA477>3.0.CO;2-9

  18. Lu H-H, Liu C-Y, Jen T-H, Liao J-L, Tseng H-E, Huang C-W, Hung M-C, Chen S-A (2005) Excimer formation by electric field induction and side chain motion assistance in polyfluorenes. Macromolecules 38(26):10829–10835. doi:10.1021/ma051594z

  19. Montilla F, Mallavia R (2007) On the origin of green emission bands in fluorene-based conjugated polymers. Adv Funct Mater 17(1):71–78. doi:10.1002/adfm.200600141

  20. Rozanski LJ, Cone CW, Ostrowski DP, Bout DAV (2007) Effect of film morphology on the energy transfer to emissive green defects in dialkyl polyfluorenes. Macromolecules 40(13):4524–4529. doi:10.1021/ma0706069

  21. List EJW, Guentner R, de Freitas PS, Scherf U (2002) The effect of Keto defect sites on the emission properties of polyfluorene-type materials. Adv Mater 14(5):374–378. doi:10.1002/1521-4095(20020304)14:5<374::AID-ADMA374>3.0.CO;2-U

  22. Romero DB, Schaer M, Leclerc M, Ade`s D, Siove A, Zuppiroli L (1996) The role of carbazole in organic light-emitting devices. Synth Met 80(3):271–277. doi:10.1016/0379-6779(96)80213-X

  23. Lamansky S, Djurovich P, Murphy D, Abdel-Razzaq F, Lee HE, Adachi C, Burrows PE, Forrest SR, Thompson ME (2001) Highly phosphorescent bis-cyclometalated iridium complexes:  synthesis, photophysical characterization, and use in organic light emitting diodes. J Am Chem Soc 123(18):4304–4312. doi:10.1021/ja003693s

  24. Morin JF, Leclerc M (2001) Syntheses of conjugated polymers derived from N-Alkyl-2,7-carbazoles. Macromolecules 34(14):4680–4682. doi:10.1021/ma010152u

  25. Chen F, Mehta PG, Takiff L, McCullough RD (1996) Improved electroluminescence performance of poly (3-alkylthiophenes) having a high head-to-tail (HT) ratio. J Mater Chem 6(11):1763–1766. doi:10.1039/JM9960601763

  26. Gong SL, Yang CL, Qin JG (2012) Efficient phosphorescent polymer light-emitting diodes by suppressing triplet energy back transfer. Chem Soc Rev 41(14):4797–4807. doi:10.1039/C2CS35056D

  27. Tang C, Liu XD, Liu F, Wang XL, Xu H, Huang W (2013) Recent progress in polymer white light-emitting materials and devices. Macromol Chem Phys 214(3):314–342. doi:10.1002/macp.201200305

  28. Hay M, Klavetter FL (1995) Aliphatic phenylene vinylene copolymers: tuning the color of luminescence through co-monomer feed ratios. J Am Chem Soc 117(27):7112–7118. doi:10.1021/ja00132a011

  29. Ku CH, Kuo CH, Leung MK, Hsieh KH (2009) Carbazole–oxadiazole containing polyurethanes as phosphorescent host for organic light emitting diodes. Eur Polym J 45(5):1545–1553. doi:10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2009.01.024

  30. Cho HJ, Park MJ, Hwang DH, Ahn T, Hong JW, Lee J, Cho NS, Shim HK (2009) Synthesis and characterization of fluorene-based copolymers containing siloxane or distilbene moieties on their main chain. J Polym Sci Pol Chem 47(6):1595–1608. doi:10.1002/pola.23259

  31. Koguchi R, Kobayashi N, Kijima M (2009) Appropriately conjugated poly[oligo(N-phenyl-2,7-carbazolylene)-alt-diphenylsilylene]s. Macromolecules 42(16):5946–5952. doi:10.1021/ma900908b

  32. Fei T, Cheng G, Hu DH, Lu P, Ma YG (2009) A wide band gap polymer derived from 3,6-carbazole and tetraphenylsilane as host for green and blue phosphorescent complexes. J Polym Sci Pol Chem 47(18):4784–4792. doi:10.1002/pola.23532

  33. Jiang XQ, Zheng ZM, Harima Y, Ohshita J, Sun PP (2011) Optical properties of a series of monosilylene–oligothienylene copolymers and the application to light-emitting diodes. J Mater Chem 21:1902–1906. doi:10.1039/C0JM02761H

  34. Mo YQ, Jiang X, Cao DR (2007) Synthesis and electroluminescent properties of soluble poly(3,6-fluorene) and its copolymer. Org Lett 9(21):4371–4373. doi:10.1021/ol7019907

  35. Wu ZL, Xiong Y, Zou JH, Wang L, Liu JC, Chen QL, Yang W, Peng JB, Cao Y (2008) High-triplet-energy poly(9,9′-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-3,6-fluorene) as host for blue and green phosphorescent complexes. Adv Mater 20(12):2359–2364. doi:10.1002/adma.200800213

  36. Yeh HC, Chien CH, Shih PI, Yuan MC, Shu CF (2008) Polymers derived from 3,6-fluorene and tetraphenylsilane derivatives: solution-processable host materials for green phosphorescent OLEDs. Macromolecules 41(11):3801–3807. doi:10.1021/ma800391e

  37. van Dijken A, Bastiaansen JJAM, Kiggen NMM, Langeveld BMW, Rothe C, Monkman A, Bach I, Sto¨ssel P, Brunner K (2004) Carbazole compounds as host materials for triplet emitters in organic light-emitting diodes:  polymer hosts for high-efficiency light-emitting diodes. J Am Chem Soc 126(24):7718–7727. doi:10.1021/ja049771j

  38. Chen Y-C, Huang G-S, Hsiao C-C, Chen S-A (2006) High triplet energy polymer as host for electrophosphorescence with high efficiency. J Am Chem Soc 128(26):8549–8558. doi:10.1021/ja060936t

  39. Mo YQ, Tian RY, Shi W, Cao Y (2005) Ultraviolet-emitting conjugated polymer poly(9,9′-alkyl-3,6-silafluorene) with a wide band gap of 4.0 eV. Chem Commun 39:4925–4926. doi:10.1039/B507518A

  40. Chan KL, Watkins SE, Mak CSK, McKiernan MJ, Towns CR, Pascu SI, Holmes AB (2005) Poly(9,9-dialkyl-3,6-dibenzosilole)—a high energy gap host for phosphorescent light emitting devices. Chem Commun 46:5766–5768. doi:10.1039/B511208G

  41. Wang EG, Li C, Peng JB, Cao Y (2007) High-efficiency blue light-emitting polymers based on 3,6-silafluorene and 2,7-silafluorene. J Polym Sci Pol Chem 45(21):4941–4949. doi:10.1002/pola.22243

  42. Mo YQ, Deng XY, Jiang X, Cui QH (2009) Blue electroluminescence from 3,6-silafluorene-based copolymers. J Polym Sci Pol Chem 47(13):3286–3295. doi:10.1002/pola.23393

  43. Liu J, Hu SJ, Zhao W, Zou QH, Luo W, Yang W, Peng JBA, Cao Y (2010) Novel spectrally stable saturated blue-light-emitting poly[(fluorene)-co-(dioctyldibenzothiophene-S,S-dioxide)]s. Macromol Rapid Commun 31(5):496–501. doi:10.1002/marc.200900547

  44. Park JW, Park SJ, Kim YH, Shin DC, You H, Kwon SK (2009) Pure color and stable blue-light emission-alternating copolymer based on fluorene and dialkoxynaphthalene. Polymer 50(1):102–106. doi:10.1016/j.polymer.2008.10.056

  45. Gong X, Ostrowski JC, Moses D, Bazan GC, Heeger AJ (2003) Electrophosphorescence from a polymer guest–host system with an Iridium complex as guest: förster energy transfer and charge trapping. Adv Funct Mater 13(6):439–444. doi:10.1002/adfm.200304334

  46. Lamansky S, Djurovich P, Abdel-Razzaq F, Garon S, Murphy D, Thompson ME (2002) Cyclometalated Ir complexes in polymer organic light-emitting devices. J Appl Phys 92(3):1570–1575. doi:10.1063/1.1491587

  47. Qi ZJ, Wang XM, Wei B, Kang F, Tang LL, Hong MX, Sun YM (2011) Optical and electronic properties of 3,4-dialkylthiophene-based p-/n-alternating copolymers. J Appl Polym Sci 120(5):2678–2684. doi:10.1002/app.33407

  48. Gong X, Yang YL, Xiao S (2009) Ambipolar charge transport in polymer light-emitting diodes. J Phys Chem C 113(17):7398–7404. doi:10.1021/jp811396j

  49. Liu ZP, Zhang JJ, Qiu YR, Qin L, Zhang P (2010) Synthesis and characterization of a red-emitting copolymer containing 5,8-quinoline units. Macromol Chem Phys 211(18):1960–1968. doi:10.1002/macp.201000236

  50. Zhu HF, Tong H, Gong YY, Shao SY, Deng CM, Yuan WZ, Zhang YM (2012) Fluorene- and benzimidazole-based blue light-emitting copolymers: Synthesis, photophysical properties, and PLED applications. J Polym Sci Pol Chem 50(11):2172–2181. doi:10.1002/pola.25984

  51. Chen RT, Su WF, Chen Y (2011) Highly efficient and stable blue-light-emitting copolyfluorene consisting of carbazole, oxadiazole, and charge-trapping anthracene groups. J Polym Sci Pol Chem 49(1):184–191. doi:10.1002/pola.24439

  52. Horii T, Shinnai T, Tsuchiya K, Mori T, Kijima M (2012) Synthesis and properties of conjugated copolycondensates consisting of carbazole-2,7-diyl and fluorene-2,7-diyl J Polym Sci Pol Chem 50(21):4557–4562. doi:10.1002/pola.26268

  53. Mori T, Kijima M (2009) Synthesis and electroluminescence properties of carbazole-containing 2,6-naphthalene-based conjugated polymers. Eur Polym J 45(4):1149–1157. doi:10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2008.12.042

  54. Lin MW, Chen RT, Yeh CH, Wen TC, Guo TF (2012) Bright, efficient, deep blue-emissive polymer light-emitting diodes of suitable hole-transport layer and cathode design. Org Electron 13(12):3067–3073. doi:10.1016/j.orgel.2012.09.009

  55. Jiang ZQ, Zhang WJ, Yao HQ, Yang CL, Cao Y, Qin JG, Yu G, Liu YQ (2009) Copolyfluorenes containing bridged triphenylamine or triphenylamine: Synthesis, characterization, and optoelectronic properties. J Polym Sci Pol Chem 47(14):3651–3661. doi:10.1002/pola.23442

  56. Ye H, Zhao BF, Liu M, Zhou X, Li YH, Li DY, Su SJ, Yang W, Cao Y (2011) Dual-functional conjugated polymers based on trifluoren-2-yl-amine for RGB organic light-emitting diodes. J Mater Chem 21(43):17454–17461.  doi:10.1039/C1JM13533C

  57. Harkema S, Kicken R, Langeveld-Voss BMW, van Mensfoort SLM, de Kok MM, Coehoorn R (2010) Tuning the voltage dependence of the efficiency of blue organic light-emitting diodes based on fluorene–amine copolymers. Org Electron 11(5):755–766. doi:10.1016/j.orgel.2010.01.015

  58. Coehoorn R, Mensfoort SLMV (2009) Effects of disorder on the current density and recombination profile in organic light-emitting diodes. Phys Rev B: Condens Matter 80(8):085302. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.80.085302

  59. Park MJ, Lee JI, Chu HY, Kim SH, Zyung T, Eom JH, Shim HK, Hwang DH (2009) Light-emitting properties of photo-curable polyfluorene derivatives. Synth Met 159(14):1393–1397. doi:10.1016/j.synthmet.2009.03.027

  60. Kim SK, Eom JH, Mi D, Jung CH, Lee JH, Kang IN, Kim JH, Hwang DH (2009) Synthesis and light-emitting properties of copolymers composed of fluorene and n-alkoxyphenylphenothiazine. Synth Met 159(15-16):1672–1676. doi:10.1016/j.synthmet.2009.05.005

  61. Choi J, Lee B, Kim JH (2009) Synthesis and electroluminescent properties of π-conjugated copolymer based on 10-hexylphenothiazine and aromatic 1,2,4-triazole. Synth Met 159(19–20):1922–1927. doi:10.1016/j.synthmet.2009.03.029

  62. Ahn T, Jang MS, Shim HK, Hwang DH, Zyung T (1999) Blue electroluminescent polymers:control of conjugation length by kink linkages and substituents in the poly(p-phenylenevinylene)-related copolymers. Macromolecules 32(10):3279–3285. doi:10.1021/ma981864w

  63. Saikia G, Singh R, Sarmah PJ, Akhtar MW, Sinha J, Katiyar M, Iyer PK (2009) Synthesis and characterization of soluble poly(p-phenylene) derivatives for PLED applications. Macromol Chem Phys 210(24):2153–2159. doi:10.1002/macp.200900387

  64. Kim SO, Jung HC, Lee MJ, Jun C, Kim YH, Kwon SK (2009) Synthesis and characterization of 9,10-diphenylanthracene-based blue light emitting materials. J Polym Sci Pol Chem 47(21):5908–5916. doi:10.1002/pola.23636

  65. Muller CD, Falcou A, Reckefuss N, Rojahn M, Wiederhirn V, Rudati P, Frohne H, Nuyken O, Becker H, Meerholz K (2003) Multi-colour organic light-emitting displays by solution processing. Nature 421:829–833. doi:10.1038/nature01390

  66. Jin JK, Kwon SK, Kim YH, Shin DC, You H, Jung HT (2009) Synthesis and device performance of a highly efficient fluorene-based blue emission polymer containing bulky 9,9-dialkylfluorene substituents. Macromolecules 42(17):6339–6347. doi:10.1021/ma901071d

  67. Zhu R, Wen GA, Feng JC, Chen RF, Zhao L, Yao HP, Fan QL, Wei W, Peng B, Huang W (2005) Di-channel polyfluorene containing spiro-bridged oxadiazole branches. Macromol Rapid Commun 26(21):1729–1735. doi:10.1002/marc.200500412

  68. Wang HY, Qian Q, Lin KH, Peng B, Huang W, Liu F, Wei W (2012) Stable and good color purity white light-emitting devices based on random fluorene/spirofluorene copolymers doped with iridium complex. J Polym Sci Pol Phys 50(3):180–188. doi:10.1002/polb.22391

  69. Huang F, Wu HB, Cao Y (2010) Water/alcohol soluble conjugated polymers as highly efficient electron transporting/injection layer in optoelectronic devices. Chem Soc Rev 39:2500–2521. doi:10.1039/B907991M

  70. Huang F, Hou LT, Wu HB, Wang XH, Shen HL, Cao W, Yang W, Cao Y (2004) High-efficiency, environment-friendly electroluminescent polymers with stable high work function metal as a cathode:  green- and yellow-emitting conjugated polyfluorene polyelectrolytes and their neutral precursors. J Am Chem Soc 126(31): 845–9853. doi:10.1021/ja0476765

  71. Shi W, Jiang X, Zen WJ, Huang F, Yang W, Liu RS, Cao Y (2009) Triphenylamine and fluorene based cationic conjugated polyelectrolytes: synthesis and characterization. Macromol Chem Phys 210(2):150–160. doi:10.1002/macp.200800436

  72. Liu SJ, Zhong CM, Dong S, Zhang J, Huang XL, Zhou C, Lu JM, Ying L, Wang L, Huang F, Cao Y (2014) Novel aminoalkyl-functionalized blue-, green- and red-emitting polyfluorenes.Org Electron 15(4):850–857. doi:10.1016/1477j.orgel.2014.1001.1016

  73. Yu JM, Chen Y (2009) Synthesis, characterization, and electroluminescent performance of a novel copolyfluorene containing pendant crown ether groups. J Polym Sci Pol Chem 47(12):2985–2995. doi:10.1002/pola.23380

  74. Shu CF, Dodda R, Wu FI, Liu MS, Jen AKY (2003) Highly efficient blue-light-emitting diodes from polyfluorene containing bipolar pendant groups. Macromolecules 36(18):6698–6703. doi:10.1021/ma030123e

  75. Lin Y, Chen Y, Chen ZK, Ma DG, Zhang B, Ye TL, Dai YF (2010) Triphenylamine and quinoline-containing polyfluorene for blue light-emitting diodes. Eur Polym J 46(5):997–1003. doi:10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2010.02.013

  76. Lin Y, Ye TL, Chen Y, Ma DG, Chen ZK, Dai YF, Li YX (2010) Blue-light-emitting polyfluorene functionalized with triphenylamine and cyanophenylfluorene bipolar side chains. J Polym Sci Pol Chem 48(24):5930–5937. doi:10.1002/pola.24406

  77. Wu CS, Chen Y (2010) Copolyfluorenes containing pendant bipolar groups: synthesis, optoelectronic properties and applications. J Mater Chem 20(36):7700–7709. doi:10.1039/C0JM00707B

  78. Zhou QF, Li HM, Feng XD (1987) Synthesis of liquid-crystalline polyacrylates with laterally substituted mesogens. Macromolecules 20(2):233–234. doi:10.1021/ma00167a042

  79. Wang P, Jin H, Yang Q, Liu WL, Shen ZH, Chen XF, Fan XH, Zou DC, Zhou QF (2009) Synthesis, characterization, and electroluminescence of novel copolyfluorenes and their applications in white light emission. J Polym Sci Pol Chem 47(18):4555–4565. doi:10.1002/pola.23508

  80. Yang Q, Jin H, Xu YD, Wang P, Liang XC, Shen ZH, Chen XF, Zou DC, Fan XH, Zhou QF (2009) Synthesis, photophysics, and electroluminescence of mesogen-jacketed 2d conjugated copolymers based on fluorene−thiophene−oxadiazole derivative. Macromolecules 42(4):1037–1046. doi:10.1021/ma802414s

  81. Lin Y, Chen Y, Ye TL, Ma DG, Li YX (2012) Carbazole-modified blue light-emitting copolymers with the backbones integrated by diphenyloxadiazole, fluorene, and triphenylamine. Eur Polym J 48(2):416–424. doi:10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2011.12.004

  82. Lin Y, Chen ZK, Ye TL, Dai YF, Ma DG, Ma Z, Liu QD, Chen Y (2010) Novel fluorene-based light-emitting copolymers containing cyanophenyl pendants and carbazole-triphenylamines: synthesis, characterization and their pled application. Polymer 51(6):1270–1278. doi:10.1016/j.polymer.2010.01.024

  83. Song S, Jin Y, Kim SH, Shim JY, Son S, Kim I, Lee K, Suh H (2009) Synthesis and characterization of polyfluorenevinylene with cyano group and carbazole unit. J Polym Sci Pol Chem 47(23):6540–6551. doi:10.1002/pola.23697

  84. Peng Q, Xu J, Li MJ, Zheng WX (2009) Blue emitting polyfluorenes containing dendronized carbazole and oxadiazole pendants: synthesis, optical properties, and electroluminescent properties. Macromolecules 42(15):5478–5485. doi:10.1021/ma9008737

  85. Huang CW, Tsai CL, Liu CY, Jen TH, Yang NJ, Chen SA (2012) Design of deep blue electroluminescent spiro-polyfluorenes with high efficiency by facilitating the injection of charge carriers through incorporation of multiple charge transport moieties. Macromolecules 45(3):1281–1287. doi:10.1021/ma202413g

  86. Chen HY, Chen CT, Chen CT (2010) Synthesis and characterization of a new series of blue fluorescent 2,6-linked 9,10-diphenylanthrylenephenylene copolymers and their application for polymer light-emitting diodes. Macromolecules 43(8):3613–3623. doi:10.1021/ma100195m

  87. Dong WY, Xue SF, Lu P, Deng J, Zhao DL, Gu C, Ma YG (2011) Functionality of peripheral side chain for enhanced performance of conjugated polymer—f8bt as an example. J Polym Sci Pol Chem 49(21):4549–4555. doi:10.1002/pola.24898

  88. Gu C, Dong WY, Yao L, Lv Y, Zhang ZB, Lu D, Ma YG (2012) Cross-linked multifunctional conjugated polymers prepared by in situ electrochemical deposition for a highly-efficient blue-emitting and electron-transport layer. Adv Mater 24(18):2413–2417. doi:10.1002/adma.201200559

  89. Hu DH, Cheng G, Lu P, Liu H, Shen FZ, Li FH, Lv Y, Dong WY, Ma YG (2011) Peripheral cyanohexyl substituent in wide bandgap polymer: increase the electron injection property for blue phosphorescence light emitting device. Macromol Rapid Commun 32(18):1467–1471. doi:10.1002/marc.201100179

  90. Liu J, Pei QB (2010) Poly(m-phenylene): conjugated polymer host with high triplet energy for efficient blue electrophosphorescence. Macromolecules 43(23):9608–9612. doi:10.1021/ma102091g

  91. Liu J, Li L, Pei QB (2011) Conjugated polymer as host for high efficiency blue and white electrophosphorescence. Macromolecules 44(8):2451–2456. doi:10.1021/ma200282x

  92. Yang RQ, Tian RY, Hou Q, Yang W, Cao Y (2003) Synthesis and optical and electroluminescent properties of novel conjugated copolymers derived from fluorene and benzoselenadiazole . Macromolecules 36(20):7453–7460. doi:10.1021/ma034134j

  93. Yang J, Jiang CY, Zhang Y, Yang RQ, Yang W, Hou Q, Cao Y (2004) High-efficiency saturated red emitting polymers derived from fluorene and naphthoselenadiazole. macromolecules 37(4):1211–1218. doi:10.1021/ma035743u

  94. Hou Q, Zhou QM, Zhang Y, Yang W, Yang RQ, Cao Y (2004) Synthesis and electroluminescent properties of high-efficiency saturated red emitter based on copolymers from fluorene and 4,7-di(4-hexylthien-2-yl)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole. Macromolecules 37(17):6299–6305. doi:10.1021/ma049204g

  95. Jiang JX, Jiang CY, Yang W, Zhen HG, Huang F, Cao Y (2005) High-efficiency electrophosphorescent fluorene-alt-carbazole copolymers N-Grafted with cyclometalated Ir Complexes. Macromolecules 38(10):4072–4080. doi:10.1021/ma0474473

  96. Liu J, Zhou QG, Cheng YX, Geng YH, Wang LX, Ma DG, Jing XB, Wang FS (2005) The first single polymer with simultaneous blue, green, and red emission for white electroluminescence. Adv Mater 17(24):2974–2978. doi:10.1002/adma.200501850

  97. Wu HB, Ying L, Yang W, Cao Y (2009) Progress and perspective of polymer white light-emitting devices and materials . Chem Soc Rev 38:3391–3400. doi:10.1039/b816352a

  98. Qiao Z, Peng JB, Jin Y, Liu QL, Weng JEN, He ZC, Han SH, Cao DR (2010) Synthesis and electroluminescence properties of fluorene-co-diketopyrrolopyrrole-co-phenothiazine polymers . Polymer 51(5):1016–1023. doi:10.1016/j.polymer.2009.12.044

  99. Wang PH, Ho MS, Yang SH, Chen KB, Hsu CS (2010) Synthesis of thermal-stable and photo-crosslinkable polyfluorenes for the applications of polymer light-emitting diodes. J Polym Sci Pol Chem 48(3):516–524. doi:10.1002/pola.23712

  100. Liao CF, Hsieh BY, Chen Y (2009) Synthesis, characterization, and application of light-emitting copolyfluorenes slightly doped with distyrylbenzene derivatives. J Polym Sci Pol Chem 47(1):149–160. doi:10.1002/pola.23133

  101. Su WF, Chen TT, Chen Y (2010) Synthesis and optoelectronic properties of luminescent copolyfluorenes slightly doped with thiophene chromophore. Polymer 51(7):1555–1562. doi:10.1016/j.polymer.2010.02.012

  102. Giovanella U, Betti P, Botta C, Destri S, Moreau J, Pasini M, Porzio W, Vercelli B, Bolognesi A (2010) All-conjugated diblock copolymer approach to improve single layer green electroluminescent devices. Chem Mater 23(3):810–816. doi:10.1021/cm102154q

  103. Wu JR, Chen Y, Wu TY (2011) Synthesis of copolyfluorenes with high fluorenone contents and its application in electroluminescent device by simple blending. J Appl Polym Sci 119(5):2576–2583. doi:10.1002/app.32705

  104. Huang ST, Liaw DJ, Hsieh LG, Chang CC, Leung MK, Wang KL, Chen WT, Lee KR, Lai JY, Chan LH, Chen CT (2009) Synthesis and electroluminescent properties of polyfluorene-based conjugated polymers containing bipolar groups. J Polym Sci Pol Chem 47(22):6231–6245. doi:10.1002/pola.23667

  105. Wu CS, Chen Y (2010) Copoly(p-phenylene)s containing bipolar triphenylamine and 1,2,4-triazole groups: Synthesis, optoelectronic properties, and applications. J Polym Sci Pol Chem 48:5727–5736. doi:10.1002/pola.24374

  106. Wang KL, Leung MK, Hsieh LG, Chang CC, Lee KR, Wu CL, Jiang JC, Tseng CY, Wang HT (2011) Conjugated polymers containing electron-deficient main chains and electron-rich pendant groups: Synthesis and application to electroluminescence. Org Electron 12(6):1048–1062. doi:10.1016/j.orgel.2011.03.020

  107. Liu J, Zou J, Yang W, Wu H, Li C, Zhang B, Peng J, Cao Y (2008) Highly efficient and spectrally stable blue-light-emitting polyfluorenes containing a dibenzothiophene-S,S-dioxide unit. Chem Mater 20(13):4499–4506. doi:10.1021/cm800129h

  108. Li YY, Wu HB, Zou JH, Ying L, Yang W, Cao Y (2009) Enhancement of spectral stability and efficiency on blue light-emitters via introducing dibenzothiophene-S,S-dioxide isomers into polyfluorene backbone. Org Electron 10(5):901–909. doi:10.1016/j.orgel.2009.04.021

  109. King SM, Perepichka II, Perepichka IF, Dias FB, Bryce MR, Monkman AP (2009) Exploiting a dual-fluorescence process in fluorene–dibenzothiophene-S,S-dioxideco-polymers to give efficient single polymer LEDs with broadened emission. Adv Funct Mater 19(4):586–591. doi:10.1002/adfm.200801237

  110. Guo X, Cheng YX, Xie ZY, Geng YH, Wang LX, Jing XB, Wang FS (2009) Fluorene-based copolymers containing dinaphtho-s-indacene as new building blocks for high-efficiency and color-stable blue LEDs. Macromol Rapid Commun 30(9–10):816–825. doi:10.1002/marc.200800765

  111. Lee SK, Ahn T, Park JH, Jung YK, Chung DS, Park CE, Shim HK (2009) β-Phase formation in poly(9,9-di-n-octylfluorene) by incorporating an ambipolar unit containing phenothiazine and 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-[p-(dimethylamino)styryl]-4H-pyran. J Mater Chem 19(38):7062–7069. doi:10.1039/B909300A

  112. Zhou G, Qian G, Ma L, Cheng Y, Xie Z, Wang L, Jing X, Wang F (2005) Polyfluorenes with phosphonate groups in the side chains as chemosensors and electroluminescent materials. Macromolecules 38(13):5416–5424. doi:10.1021/ma050807h

  113. Chen L, Zhang BH, Cheng YX, Xie ZY, Wang LX, Jing XB, Wang FS (2010) Pure and saturated red electroluminescent polyfluorenes with dopant/host system and PLED efficiency/color purity trade-offs. Adv Funct Mater 20(18):3143–3153. doi:10.1002/adfm.201000840

  114. Chen L, Tong H, Xie ZY, Wang LX, Jing XB, Wang FS (2011) Red electroluminescent polyfluorenes containing highly efficient 2,1,3-benzoselenadiazole- and 2,1,3-naphthothiadiazole-based red dopants in the side chain. J Mater Chem 21(39):15773–15779. doi:10.1039/C1JM12549D

  115. Bian CL, Jiang GX, Tong H, Cheng YX, Xie ZY, Wang LX, Jing XB, Wang FS (2011) Pure blue electroluminescent poly(aryl ether)s with dopant–host systems. J Polym Sci Pol Chem 49(18):3911–3919. doi:10.1002/pola.24828

  116. Park MJ, Lee J, Jung IH, Park JH, Kong H, Oh JY, Hwang DH, Shim HK (2010) Synthesis, characterization, and electroluminescence of polyfluorene copolymers containing T-shaped isophorone derivatives. J Polym Sci Pol Chem 48(1):82–90. doi:10.1002/pola.23761

  117. Shi W, Wang L, Zhen HY, Zhu DX, Awut T, Mi HY, Nurulla I (2009) Novel luminescent polymers containing backbone triphenylamine groups and pendant quinoxaline groups. Dyes Pigm 83(1):102–110. doi:10.1016/j.dyepig.2009.03.016

  118. Ma Y, Zhang H, Shen J, Che C (1998) Electroluminescence from triplet metal—ligand charge-transfer excited state of transition metal complexes. Synth Met 94(3):245–248. doi:10.1016/S0379-6779(97)04166-0

  119. Baldo MA, O’Brien DF, You Y, Shoustikov A, Sibley S, Thompson ME, Forrest SR (1998) Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent devices. Nature 395(6998):151–154. doi:10.1038/25954

  120. Jiang JX, Xu YH, Yang W, Guan R, Liu ZQ, Zhen HY, Cao Y (2006) High-efficiency white-light-emitting devices from a single polymer by mixing singlet and triplet emission. Adv Mater 18(13):1769–1773. doi:10.1002/adma.200502740

  121. Ma ZH, Ding JQ, Zhang BH, Mei CY, Cheng YX, Xie ZY, Wang LX, Jing XB, Wang FS (2010) Red-emitting polyfluorenes grafted with quinoline-based Iridium complex: “simple polymeric chain, unexpected high efficiency”. Adv Funct Mater 20(1):138–146. doi:10.1002/adfm.200901595

  122. Shao S, Ding J, Ye T, Xie Z, Wang L, Jing X, Wang F (2011) A novel, bipolar polymeric host for highly efficient blue electrophosphorescence: a non-conjugated poly(aryl ether) containing triphenylphosphine oxide units in the electron-transporting main chain and carbazole units in hole-transporting side chains. Adv Mater 23(31):3570–3574. doi:10.1002/adma.201101074

  123. Shao S, Ding J, Wang L, Jing X, Wang F (2012) Highly efficient blue electrophosphorescent polymers with fluorinated poly(arylene ether phosphine oxide) as backbone. J Am Chem Soc 134(37):15189–15192. doi:10.1021/ja305634j

  124. Fei T, Cheng G, Hu DH, Dong WY, Lu P, Ma YG (2010) Iridium complex grafted to 3,6-carbazole-alt-tetraphenylsilane copolymers for blue electrophosphorescence. J Polym Sci Pol Chem 48(9):1859–1865. doi:10.1002/pola.23934

  125. Ying L, Xu YH, Yang W, Wang L, Wu HB, Cao Y (2009) Efficient red-light-emitting diodes based on novel amino-alkyl containing electrophosphorescent polyfluorenes with Al or Au as cathode. Org Electron 10(1):42–47. doi:10.1016/j.orgel.2008.10.001

  126. Ying L, Zou JH, Zhang AQ, Chen B, Yang W, Cao Y (2009) Novel orange-red light-emitting polymers with cyclometaled Iridium complex grafted in alkyl chain. J Organomet Chem 694(17):2727–2734. doi:10.1016/j.jorganchem.2009.05.007

  127. Tan H, Yu JT, Chen JH, Nie KX, Chen Q, Huang Y, Zhang ZY, Wang YF, Liu Y, Lei GT, Zhu WG (2012) Polyfluorene derivatives pending iridium complexes: improved optoelectronic properties by introducing D-A units and altering pendent mode. J Polym Sci Pol Chem 50(10):1900–1905. doi:10.1002/pola.25959

  128. Park MJ, Lee J, Kwak J, Jung IH, Park JH, Kong H, Lee C, Hwang DH, Shim HK (2009) Synthesis and electroluminescence of new polyfluorene copolymers containing Iridium complex coordinated on the main chain. Macromolecules 42(15): 5551–5557. doi:10.1021/ma9007175

  129. Huang WS, Wu YH, Hsu YC, Lin HC, Lin JT (2009) Synthesis, characterization, and photophysics of electroluminescent fluorene/dibenzothiophene- and fluorene/dibenzothiophene-S,S-dioxide-based main-chain copolymers bearing benzimidazole-based Iridium complexes as backbones or dopants Polymer 50(25):5945–5958. doi:10.1016/j.polymer.2009.10.011

  130. Huang WS, Wu YH, Lin HC, Lin JT (2010) Electroluminescent main-chain copolymers containing phosphorescentbenzimidazole-based Iridium complexes as copolymerization backbone units or dopants. Polym Chem 1:494–505. doi:10.1039/B9PY00276F

  131. Zhang W, Jin H, Zhou F, Shen ZH, Zou DC, Fan XH (2012) Synthesis and characterization of electrophosphorescent jacketed conjugated polymers. J Polym Sci Pol Chem 50(18):3895–3903. doi:10.1002/pola.26189

  132. Thesen MW, Krueger H, Janietz S, Wedel A, Graf M (2010) Investigation of spacer influences in phosphorescent-emitting nonconjugated PLED systems. J Polym Sci Pol Chem 48(2):389–402. doi:10.1002/pola.23796

  133. Koga Y, Yoshida N, Matsubara K (2009) Phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes using an iridium complex polymer as the solution-processible host material. J Polym Sci Pol Chem 47(17):4366–4378. doi:10.1002/pola.23489

  134. Xu H, Zhu R, Zhao P, Huang W (2011) Monochromic Red-emitting nonconjugated copolymers containing double-carrier-trapping phosphine oxide Eu3+ segments: toward bright and efficient electroluminescence. J Phys Chem C 115(31):15627–15638. doi:10.1021/jp2029714

  135. Wong W-Y, Ho C-L (2006) Di-, oligo- and polymetallaynes: syntheses, photophysics, structures and applications. Coord Chem Rev 250(19–20):2627–2690. doi:10.1016/j.ccr.2006.04.014

  136. Goudreault T, He Z, Guo Y, Ho CL, Zhan HM, Wang QW, Ho KYF, Wong KL, Fortin D, Yao B, Xie ZY, Wang LX, Kwok WM, Harvey PD, Wong WY (2010) Synthesis, light-lmitting, and two-photon absorption properties of platinum-containing poly(arylene-ethynylene)s linked by 1,3,4-oxadiazole units. Macromolecules 43(19):7936–7949. doi:10.1021/ma1009319

  137. Ho CL, Chui CH, Wong WY, Aly SM, Fortin D, Harvey PD, Yao B, Xie ZY, Wang LX (2009) Efficient electrophosphorescence from a platinum metallopolyyne featuring a 2,7-carbazole chromophore. Macromol Chem Phys 210(21):1786–1798. doi:10.1002/macp.200900351

  138. Lee PI, Hsu SLC, Lin PY (2010) White-light-emitting diodes from single polymer systems based on polyfluorene copolymers with quinoxaline derivatives. Macromolecules 43(19):8051–8057. doi:10.1021/ma101673a

  139. Lo CN, Hsu CS (2011) Synthesis and electroluminescence properties of white-light single polyfluorenes with high-molecular weight by click reaction. J Polym Sci Pol Chem 49(15):3355–3365. doi:10.1002/pola.24772

  140. Jeong E, Kim SH, Jung IH, Xia Y, Lee K, Suh H, Shim HK, Woo HY (2009) Synthesis and characterization of indeno[1,2-b]fluorene-based white light-emitting copolymer. J Polym Sci Pol Chem 47(14):3467–3479. doi:10.1002/pola.23422

  141. Su RYT, Chiu LK, Weng SW, Chou YS, Tsiang RCC (2012) White light electroluminescence from graphene-enhanced single polymer comprising two color emitters of equal molar ratios. J Polym Sci Pol Phys 50(4):280–288. doi:10.1002/polb.23008

  142. Li H, Xiang N, Wang L, Zhao B, Shen P, Lu JJ, Tan ST (2009) Synthesis and white electroluminescent properties of multicomponent copolymers containing polyfluorene, oligo(phenylenevinylene), and porphyrin derivatives. J Polym Sci Pol Chem 47(20):5291–5303. doi:10.1002/pola.23578

  143. Shao SY, Ding JQ, Wang LX, Jing XB, Wang FS (2012) White electroluminescence from all-phosphorescent single polymers on a fluorinated poly(arylene ether phosphine oxide) backbone simultaneously grafted with blue and yellow phosphors. J Am Chem Soc 134(50):20290–20293. doi:10.1021/ja310158j

  144. Park MJ, Kwak J, Lee J, Jung IH, Kong H, Lee C, Hwang DH, Shim HK (2010) Single chain white-light-emitting polyfluorene copolymers containing iridium complex coordinated on the main chain. Macromolecules 43(3):1379–1386. doi:10.1021/ma902318t

  145. Chen Q, Liu N, Ying L, Yang W, Wu H, Xu W, Cao Y (2009) Novel white-light-emitting polyfluorenes with benzothiadiazole and Ir complex on the backbone. Polymer 50(6):1430–1437. doi:10.1016/j.polymer.2009.01.017

  146. Chen J, Peng H, Law CCW, Dong Y, Lam JWY, Williams ID, Tang BZ (2003) Hyperbranched poly(phenylenesilolene)s:  synthesis, thermal stability, electronic conjugation, optical power limiting, and cooling-enhanced light emission. Macromolecules 36(12):4319–4327. doi:10.1021/ma034012r

  147. Tao X-T, Zhang Y-D, Wada T, Sasabe H, Suzuki H, Watanabe T, Miyata S (1998) Hyperbranched polymers for electroluminescence applications. Adv Mater 10(3):226–230. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1521-4095(199802)10:3<226::AID-ADMA226>3.0.CO;2-E

  148. Li J, Bo ZS (2004) “AB2 + AB” approach to hyperbranched polymers used as polymer blue light emitting materials. Macromolecules 37(6):2013–2015. doi:10.1021/ma0357422

  149. Chen L, Li PC, Cheng YX, Xie ZY, Wang LX, Jing XB, Wang FS (2011) White electroluminescence from star-like single polymer systems: 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole derivatives dopant as orange cores and polyfluorene host as six blue arms. Adv Mater 23(26):2986–2990. doi:10.1002/adma.201100297

  150. Chen L, Li PC, Tong H, Xie ZY, Wang LX, Jing XB, Wang FS (2012) White electroluminescent single-polymer achieved by incorporating three polyfluorene blue arms into a star-shaped orange core. J Polym Sci Pol Chem 50(14):2854–2862. doi:10.1002/pola.26061

  151. Lin ZH, Lin YD, Wu CY, Chow PT, Sun CH, Chow TJ (2010) White light-emitting devices based on star-shape polymers with a bisindolylmaleimide core. Macromolecules 43(14):5925-5931. doi:10.1021/ma101007x

  152. Shih HM, Wu RC, Shih PI, Wang CL, Hsu CS (2012) Synthesis of fluorene‐based hyperbranched polymers for solution‐processable blue, green, red, and white light‐emitting devices. J Polym Sci Pol Chem 50(4):696–710. doi:10.1002/pola.25080

  153. Palai AK, Mishra SP, Kumar A, Srivastava R, Kamalasanan MN, Patri M (2011) Hyperbranched poly (arylene ethynylene) s with triphenylamine core for polymer light‐emitting diodes. J Polym Sci Pol Chem 49(4):832–841. doi:10.1002/pola.24459

  154. Wang HQ, Qiu T, Song N, Li XY (2010) Hyperbranched polymer for light‐emitting applications. Polym Int 59(10):1384–1389. doi:10.1002/pi.2879

  155. Lu CL, Wang HQ, Wang XC, Li YF, Oiu T, He LF, Li XY (2010) Synthesis and properties of partially conjugated hyperbranched light‐emitting polymers. J Appl Polym Sci 117(1):517–523. doi:10.1002/app.30359

  156. Tsai YT, Lai CT, Chien RH, Hong JL, Yeh AC (2012) Thermal and spectral stability of electroluminescent hyperbranched copolymers containing tetraphenylthiophene‐quinoline‐triphenylamine moieties. J Polym Sci Pol Chem 50(2):237–249. doi:10.1002/pola.25020

  157. Vanjinathan M, Lin HC, Nasar AS (2012) Design, synthesis, photophysical, and electrochemical properties of DCM‐based conjugated polymers for light‐emitting devices. J Polym Sci Pol Chem 50(18):3806–3818. doi:10.1002/pola.26169

  158. Lee RH, Chen WS, Wang YY (2009) Synthesis and electroluminescence properties of a series of hyper-branched light-emitting polymers. Thin Solid Films 517(19):5747–5756. doi:10.1016/j.tsf.2009.03.216

  159. Liu F, Liu JQ, Liu RR, Hou XY, Xie LH, Wu HB, Tang C, Wei W, Cao Y, Huang W (2009) Hyperbranched framework of interrupted π‐conjugated polymers end‐capped with high carrier‐mobility moieties for stable light‐emitting materials with low driving voltage. J Polym Sci Pol Chem 47(23):6451–6462. doi:10.1002/pola.23685

  160. Li ZA, Ye SH, Liu YQ, Yu G, Wu WB, Qin JG, Li Z (2010) New hyperbranched conjugated polymers containing hexaphenylbenzene and oxadiazole units: convenient synthesis and efficient deep blue emitters for PLEDs application. J Phys Chem B 114(28):9101–9108. doi:10.1021/jp1014077

  161. Wu WB, Ye SH, Yu G, Liu YQ, Qin JG, Li Z (2012) Novel functional conjugative hyperbranched polymers with aggregation‐induced emission: synthesis through one‐pot “A2+ B4” polymerization and application as explosive chemsensors and PLEDs. Macromol Rapid Commun 33(2):164–171. doi:10.1002/marc.201100503

  162. Wu WB, Ye SH, Huang LJ, Xiao L, Fu YJ, Huang Q, Yu G, Liu YQ, Qin JG, Li QQ, Li Z (2012) A conjugated hyperbranched polymer constructed from carbazole and tetraphenylethylene moieties: convenient synthesis through one-pot “A 2+ B 4” Suzuki polymerization, aggregation-induced enhanced emission, and application as explosive chemosensors and PLEDs. J Mater Chem 22(13):6374–6382. doi:10.1039/C2JM16514G

  163. Guan R, Xu YH, Ying L, Yang W, Wu HB, Chen QL, Cao Y (2009) Novel green-light-emitting hyperbranched polymers with iridium complex as core and 3, 6-carbazole-co-2, 6-pyridine unit as branch. J Mater Chem 19(4):531–537. doi:10.1039/B813927J

  164. Liu J, Yu L, Zhong C, He R, Yang W, Wu H, Cao Y (2012) Highly efficient green-emitting electrophosphorescent hyperbranched polymers using a bipolar carbazole-3, 6-diyl-co-2, 8-octyldibenzothiophene-S, S-dioxide-3, 7-diyl unit as the branch. RSC Adv 2(2):689–696. doi:10.1039/C1RA00610J

  165. Guo T, Yu L, Zhao BF, Li YH, Tao Y, Yang W, Hou Q, Wu HB, Cao Y (2012) Highly efficient, red‐emitting hyperbranched polymers utilizing a phenyl‐isoquinoline iridium complex as the core. Macromol Chem Phys 213(8):820–828. doi:10.1002/macp.201100676

  166. Hoeben FJM, Jonkheijm P, Meijer EW, Schenning APHJ (2005) About supramolecular assemblies of π-conjugated systems. Chem Rev 105(4):1491–1546. doi:10.1021/cr030070z

  167. Brunsveld L, Folmer BJB, Meijer EW, Sijbesma RP (2001) Supramolecular polymers. Chem Rev 101(12):4071–4098. doi:10.1021/cr990125q

  168. Abbel R, Grenier C, Pouderoijen MJ, Stouwdam JW, Leclère PELG, Sijbesma RP, Meijer EW, Schenning APHJ (2008) White-light emitting hydrogen-bonded supramolecular copolymers based on π-conjugated oligomers. J Am Chem Soc 131(2):833–843. doi:10.1021/ja807996y

  169. Zhang J, Zhang K, Huang XL, Cai WZ, Zhou C, Liu SJ, Huang F, Cao Y (2012) Supramolecular light-emitting polymers for solution-processed optoelectronic devices. J Mater Chem 22(25):12759–12766. doi:10.1039/C2JM31773G

  170. Zhang J, Zhang K, Liu S, Liang A, Huang X, Huang F, Peng J, Cao Y (2013) A supramolecular large band gap host for phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes. RSC Adv 3(12):3829–3835. doi:10.1039/C3RA40249E

  171. Liang A-H, Zhang K, Zhang J, Huang F, Zhu X-H, Cao Y (2013) Supramolecular phosphorescent polymer Iridium complexes for high-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes. Chem Mater 25(6):1013–1019. doi:10.1021/cm400333c

  172. Liang AH, Dong S, Zhang K, Xiao X, Huang F, Zhu XH, Cao Y (2013) Supramolecular sky-blue phosphorescent polymer Iridium complexes for single-emissive-layer organic light-emitting diodes. Macromol Rapid Commun 34(16):1301–1305. doi:10.1002/marc.201300254

  173. Cambridge Display Technology (2012) Progress in polymer OLED efficiency. Accessed 1 Feb 2014

  174. Uoyama H, Goushi K, Shizu K, Nomura H, Adachi C (2012) Highly efficient organic light-emitting diodes from delayed fluorescence. Nature 492(13):234–238. doi:10.1038/nature11687

  175. Li W, Pan Y, Xiao R, Peng Q, Zhang S, Ma D, Li F, Shen F, Wang Y, Yang B, Ma Y (2013) Employing ∼100% excitons in OLEDs by utilizing a fluorescent molecule with hybridized local and charge-transfer excited state. Adv Funct Mater 24(11):1609–1614. doi:10.1002/adfm.201301750

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Fei Huang .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2015 Springer International Publishing Switzerland

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Guan, X., Liu, S., Huang, F. (2015). Conjugated Polymer Electroluminescent Materials. In: Li, Y. (eds) Organic Optoelectronic Materials. Lecture Notes in Chemistry, vol 91. Springer, Cham.

Download citation

Publish with us

Policies and ethics