MicroRNA (miRNA)-dependent control of gene expression is one of the important components of epigenetics that plays a fundamental role in the balancing and fine-tuning of lineage-specific differentiation programs in many organs including skin. Skin development is governed by bi-directional interactions between the epithelium and mesenchyme. During skin embryogenesis, multi-potent progenitors within the single-layered surface epithelium differentiate to form the multi-layered epidermis and its appendages, including the hair follicle. Skin and hair follicle development is tightly regulated by a balance of gene activation and silencing. miRNAs play indispensable roles in the formation of functional skin and its appendages, by orchestrating gene expression programs in a spatiotemporally specific manner, and also play important roles in a variety of skin diseases miRNAs. Study of the non-coding genome not only advances our understanding of the fundamental biological roles of miRNAs in healthy organisms, but will further allow for the development of novel therapeutic modalities involving targeting non-coding RNAs for many diseases including skin pathologies.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Ha M, Kim VN. Regulation of microRNA biogenesis. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2014;15(8):509–24.
Chang TC, Pertea M, Lee S, Salzberg SL, Mendell JT. Genome-wide annotation of microRNA primary transcript structures reveals novel regulatory mechanisms. Genome Res. 2015;25(9):1401–9.
Landgraf P, Rusu M, Sheridan R, Sewer A, Iovino N, Aravin A, et al. A mammalian microRNA expression atlas based on small RNA library sequencing. Cell. 2007;129(7):1401–14.
Wang D, Zhang Z, O’Loughlin E, Wang L, Fan X, Lai EC, et al. MicroRNA-205 controls neonatal expansion of skin stem cells by modulating the PI(3)K pathway. Nat Cell Biol. 2013;15(10):1153–63.
Adam RC, Yang H, Rockowitz S, Larsen SB, Nikolova M, Oristian DS, et al. Pioneer factors govern super-enhancer dynamics in stem cell plasticity and lineage choice. Nature. 2015;521(7552):366–70.
Marson A, Levine SS, Cole MF, Frampton GM, Brambrink T, Johnstone S, et al. Connecting microRNA genes to the core transcriptional regulatory circuitry of embryonic stem cells. Cell. 2008;134(3):521–33.
Suzuki HI, Yamagata K, Sugimoto K, Iwamoto T, Kato S, Miyazono K. Modulation of microRNA processing by p53. Nature. 2009;460(7254):529–33.
Davis BN, Hilyard AC, Lagna G, Hata A. SMAD proteins control DROSHA-mediated microRNA maturation. Nature. 2008;454(7200):56–61.
Kawai S, Amano A. BRCA1 regulates microRNA biogenesis via the DROSHA microprocessor complex. J Cell Biol. 2012;197(2):201–8.
Krell J, Stebbing J, Frampton AE, Carissimi C, Harding V, De Giorgio A, et al. The role of TP53 in miRNA loading onto AGO2 and in remodelling the miRNA-mRNA interaction network. Lancet. 2015;385 Suppl 1:S15.
Mori M, Triboulet R, Mohseni M, Schlegelmilch K, Shrestha K, Camargo FD, et al. Hippo signaling regulates microprocessor and links cell-density-dependent miRNA biogenesis to cancer. Cell. 2014;156(5):893–906.
Alarcon CR, Lee H, Goodarzi H, Halberg N, Tavazoie SF. N6-methyladenosine marks primary microRNAs for processing. Nature. 2015;519(7544):482–5.
Lund E, Guttinger S, Calado A, Dahlberg JE, Kutay U. Nuclear export of microRNA precursors. Science. 2004;303(5654):95–8.
Yi R, Qin Y, Macara IG, Cullen BR. Exportin-5 mediates the nuclear export of pre-microRNAs and short hairpin RNAs. Genes Dev. 2003;17(24):3011–6.
Yi R, Doehle BP, Qin Y, Macara IG, Cullen BR. Overexpression of exportin 5 enhances RNA interference mediated by short hairpin RNAs and microRNAs. RNA. 2005;11(2):220–6.
Xie M, Li M, Vilborg A, Lee N, Shu MD, Yartseva V, et al. Mammalian 5′-capped microRNA precursors that generate a single microRNA. Cell. 2013;155(7):1568–80.
Andl T, Murchison EP, Liu F, Zhang Y, Yunta-Gonzalez M, Tobias JW, et al. The miRNA-processing enzyme dicer is essential for the morphogenesis and maintenance of hair follicles. Current Biol CB. 2006;16(10):1041–9.
Teta M, Choi YS, Okegbe T, Wong G, Tam OH, Chong MM, et al. Inducible deletion of epidermal Dicer and Drosha reveals multiple functions for miRNAs in postnatal skin. Development. 2012;139(8):1405–16.
Wang D, Zhang Z, O’Loughlin E, Lee T, Houel S, O’Carroll D, et al. Quantitative functions of Argonaute proteins in mammalian development. Genes Dev. 2012;26(7):693–704.
Yi R, O’Carroll D, Pasolli HA, Zhang Z, Dietrich FS, Tarakhovsky A, et al. Morphogenesis in skin is governed by discrete sets of differentially expressed microRNAs. Nat Genet. 2006;38(3):356–62.
Yi R, Pasolli HA, Landthaler M, Hafner M, Ojo T, Sheridan R, et al. DGCR8-dependent microRNA biogenesis is essential for skin development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106(2):498–502.
Czech B, Hannon GJ. Small RNA sorting: matchmaking for Argonautes. Nat Rev Genet. 2011;12(1):19–31.
Jonas S, Izaurralde E. Towards a molecular understanding of microRNA-mediated gene silencing. Nat Rev Genet. 2015;16(7):421–33.
Rybak-Wolf A, Jens M, Murakawa Y, Herzog M, Landthaler M, Rajewsky N. A variety of dicer substrates in human and C. elegans. Cell. 2014;159(5):1153–67.
Smibert P, Yang JS, Azzam G, Liu JL, Lai EC. Homeostatic control of Argonaute stability by microRNA availability. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2013;20(7):789–95.
Calabrese JM, Seila AC, Yeo GW, Sharp PA. RNA sequence analysis defines Dicer’s role in mouse embryonic stem cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104(46):18097–102.
Yoon JH, Jo MH, White EJ, De S, Hafner M, Zucconi BE, et al. AUF1 promotes let-7b loading on Argonaute 2. Genes Dev. 2015;29(15):1599–604.
Golden RJ, Chen B, Li T, Braun J, Manjunath H, Chen X, et al. An Argonaute phosphorylation cycle promotes microRNA-mediated silencing. Nature. 2017;542(7640):197–202.
La Rocca G, Olejniczak SH, Gonzalez AJ, Briskin D, Vidigal JA, Spraggon L, et al. In vivo, Argonaute-bound microRNAs exist predominantly in a reservoir of low molecular weight complexes not associated with mRNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112(3):767–72.
Rissland OS, Hong SJ, Bartel DP. MicroRNA destabilization enables dynamic regulation of the miR-16 family in response to cell-cycle changes. Mol Cell. 2011;43(6):993–1004.
Burroughs AM, Ando Y, de Hoon MJ, Tomaru Y, Nishibu T, Ukekawa R, et al. A comprehensive survey of 3′ animal miRNA modification events and a possible role for 3′ adenylation in modulating miRNA targeting effectiveness. Genome Res. 2010;20(10):1398–410.
Jones MR, Blahna MT, Kozlowski E, Matsuura KY, Ferrari JD, Morris SA, et al. Zcchc11 uridylates mature miRNAs to enhance neonatal IGF-1 expression, growth, and survival. PLoS Genet. 2012;8(11):e1003105.
Jones MR, Quinton LJ, Blahna MT, Neilson JR, Fu S, Ivanov AR, et al. Zcchc11-dependent uridylation of microRNA directs cytokine expression. Nat Cell Biol. 2009;11(9):1157–63.
White AC, Khuu JK, Dang CY, Hu J, Tran KV, Liu A, et al. Stem cell quiescence acts as a tumour suppressor in squamous tumours. Nat Cell Biol. 2014;16(1):99–107.
Riemondy K, Wang XJ, Torchia EC, Roop DR, Yi R. MicroRNA-203 represses selection and expansion of oncogenic Hras transformed tumor initiating cells. eLife 2015;4:e07004. https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07004
Levy C, Khaled M, Robinson KC, Veguilla RA, Chen PH, Yokoyama S, et al. Lineage-specific transcriptional regulation of DICER by MITF in melanocytes. Cell. 2010;141(6):994–1005.
Ito M, Liu Y, Yang Z, Nguyen J, Liang F, Morris RJ, et al. Stem cells in the hair follicle bulge contribute to wound repair but not to homeostasis of the epidermis. Nat Med. 2005;11(12):1351–4.
Beck B, Blanpain C. Mechanisms regulating epidermal stem cells. EMBO J. 2012;31(9):2067–75.
Yi R, Poy MN, Stoffel M, Fuchs E. A skin microRNA promotes differentiation by repressing ‘stemness’. Nature. 2008;452(7184):225–9.
Zhang L, Stokes N, Polak L, Fuchs E. Specific microRNAs are preferentially expressed by skin stem cells to balance self-renewal and early lineage commitment. Cell Stem Cell. 2011;8(3):294–308.
Ahmed MI, Alam M, Emelianov VU, Poterlowicz K, Patel A, Sharov AA, et al. MicroRNA-214 controls skin and hair follicle development by modulating the activity of the Wnt pathway. J Cell Biol. 2014;207(4):549–67.
Mardaryev AN, Ahmed MI, Vlahov NV, Fessing MY, Gill JH, Sharov AA, et al. Micro-RNA-31 controls hair cycle-associated changes in gene expression programs of the skin and hair follicle. FASEB J Off Publ Fed Am Soc Exp Biol. 2010;24(10):3869–81.
Lena AM, Shalom-Feuerstein R, Rivetti di Val Cervo P, Aberdam D, Knight RA, Melino G, et al. miR-203 represses ‘stemness’ by repressing DeltaNp63. Cell Death Differ. 2008;15(7):1187–95.
Peng H, Park JK, Katsnelson J, Kaplan N, Yang W, Getsios S, et al. microRNA-103/107 family regulates multiple epithelial stem cell characteristics. Stem Cells. 2015;33(5):1642–56.
Eichhorn SW, Guo H, McGeary SE, Rodriguez-Mias RA, Shin C, Baek D, et al. mRNA destabilization is the dominant effect of mammalian microRNAs by the time substantial repression ensues. Mol Cell. 2014;56(1):104–15.
Chi SW, Zang JB, Mele A, Darnell RB. Argonaute HITS-CLIP decodes microRNA-mRNA interaction maps. Nature. 2009;460(7254):479–86.
Hafner M, Landthaler M, Burger L, Khorshid M, Hausser J, Berninger P, et al. Transcriptome-wide identification of RNA-binding protein and microRNA target sites by PAR-CLIP. Cell 2010;141(1):129–41.
Mills AA, Zheng B, Wang XJ, Vogel H, Roop DR, Bradley A. p63 is a p53 homologue required for limb and epidermal morphogenesis. Nature. 1999;398(6729):708–13.
Truong AB, Kretz M, Ridky TW, Kimmel R, Khavari PA. p63 regulates proliferation and differentiation of developmentally mature keratinocytes. Genes Dev. 2006;20(22):3185–97.
Yuan S, Li F, Meng Q, Zhao Y, Chen L, Zhang H, et al. Post-transcriptional regulation of keratinocyte progenitor cell expansion, differentiation and hair follicle regression by miR-22. PLoS Genet. 2015;11(5):e1005253.
Jackson SJ, Zhang Z, Feng D, Flagg M, O’Loughlin E, Wang D, et al. Rapid and widespread suppression of self-renewal by microRNA-203 during epidermal differentiation. Development. 2013;140(9):1882–91.
Chen HL, Chiang PC, Lo CH, Lo YH, Hsu DK, Chen HY, et al. Galectin-7 regulates keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation through JNK-miR-203-p63 signaling. J Invest Dermatol. 2016;136(1):182–91.
Chikh A, Matin RN, Senatore V, Hufbauer M, Lavery D, Raimondi C, et al. iASPP/p63 autoregulatory feedback loop is required for the homeostasis of stratified epithelia. EMBO J. 2011;30(20):4261–73.
Kim KH, Cho EG, Yu SJ, Kang H, Kim YJ, Kim SH, et al. DeltaNp63 intronic miR-944 is implicated in the DeltaNp63-mediated induction of epidermal differentiation. Nucleic Acids Res. 2015;43(15):7462–79.
Antonini D, Russo MT, De Rosa L, Gorrese M, Del Vecchio L, Missero C. Transcriptional repression of miR-34 family contributes to p63-mediated cell cycle progression in epidermal cells. J Invest Dermatol. 2010;130(5):1249–57.
Amelio I, Lena AM, Viticchie G, Shalom-Feuerstein R, Terrinoni A, Dinsdale D, et al. miR-24 triggers epidermal differentiation by controlling actin adhesion and cell migration. J Cell Biol. 2012;199(2):347–63.
Peng H, Kaplan N, Hamanaka RB, Katsnelson J, Blatt H. Yang W, et al. microRNA-31/factor-inhibiting hypoxia-inducible factor 1 nexus regulates keratinocyte differentiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109(35):14030–4.
Blanpain C, Fuchs E. Epidermal homeostasis: a balancing act of stem cells in the skin. Nature reviews Molecular cell biology. 2009;10(3):207–17.
Millar SE. Molecular mechanisms regulating hair follicle development. The Journal of investigative dermatology. 2002;118(2):216–25.
Schmidt-Ullrich R, Paus R. Molecular principles of hair follicle induction and morphogenesis. Bioessays. 2005;27(3):247–61.
Andl T, Reddy ST, Gaddapara T, Millar SE. WNT signals are required for the initiation of hair follicle development. Dev Cell. 2002;2(5):643–53.
Choi YS, Zhang Y, Xu M, Yang Y, Ito M, Peng T, et al. Distinct functions for Wnt/beta-catenin in hair follicle stem cell proliferation and survival and interfollicular epidermal homeostasis. Cell Stem Cell. 2013;13(6):720–33.
Fu J, Hsu W. Epidermal Wnt controls hair follicle induction by orchestrating dynamic signaling crosstalk between the epidermis and dermis. J Invest Dermatol. 2013;133(4):890–8.
Sick S, Reinker S, Timmer J, Schlake T. WNT and DKK determine hair follicle spacing through a reaction-diffusion mechanism. Science. 2006;314(5804):1447–50.
Tsai SY, Sennett R, Rezza A, Clavel C, Grisanti L, Zemla R, et al. Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in dermal condensates is required for hair follicle formation. Dev Biol. 2014;385(2):179–88.
Enshell-Seijffers D, Lindon C, Kashiwagi M, Morgan BA. Beta-catenin activity in the dermal papilla regulates morphogenesis and regeneration of hair. Dev Cell. 2010;18(4):633–42.
Huelsken J, Vogel R, Erdmann B, Cotsarelis G, Birchmeier W. beta-Catenin controls hair follicle morphogenesis and stem cell differentiation in the skin. Cell. 2001;105(4):533–45.
Vidal VP, Chaboissier MC, Lutzkendorf S, Cotsarelis G, Mill P, Hui CC, et al. Sox9 is essential for outer root sheath differentiation and the formation of the hair stem cell compartment. Curr Biol CB. 2005;15(15):1340–51.
Blache P, van de Wetering M, Duluc I, Domon C, Berta P, Freund JN, et al. SOX9 is an intestine crypt transcription factor, is regulated by the Wnt pathway, and represses the CDX2 and MUC2 genes. J Cell Biol. 2004;166(1):37–47.
Liu JA, Wu MH, Yan CH, Chau BK, So H, Ng A, et al. Phosphorylation of Sox9 is required for neural crest delamination and is regulated downstream of BMP and canonical Wnt signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110(8):2882–7.
Mitra AK, Zillhardt M, Hua Y, Tiwari P, Murmann AE, Peter ME, et al. MicroRNAs reprogram normal fibroblasts into cancer-associated fibroblasts in ovarian cancer. Cancer Discov. 2012;2(12):1100–8.
Penna E, Orso F, Cimino D, Tenaglia E, Lembo A, Quaglino E, et al. microRNA-214 contributes to melanoma tumour progression through suppression of TFAP2C. EMBO J. 2011;30(10):1990–2007.
Penna E, Orso F, Taverna D. miR-214 as a key hub that controls cancer networks: small player, multiple functions. J Invest Dermatol. 2015;135(4):960–9.
Amelio I, Lena AM, Bonanno E, Melino G, Candi E. miR-24 affects hair follicle morphogenesis targeting Tcf-3. Cell Death Dis. 2013;4:e922.
DasGupta R, Fuchs E. Multiple roles for activated LEF/TCF transcription complexes during hair follicle development and differentiation. Development. 1999;126(20):4557–68.
Merrill BJ, Gat U, DasGupta R, Fuchs E. Tcf3 and Lef1 regulate lineage differentiation of multipotent stem cells in skin. Genes Dev. 2001;15(13):1688–705.
Botchkarev VA, Kishimoto J. Molecular control of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during hair follicle cycling. J Invest Dermatol Symp Proc Soc Invest Dermatol Inc [and] Eur Soc Dermatol Res. 2003;8(1):46–55.
Botchkareva NV, Ahluwalia G, Shander D. Apoptosis in the hair follicle. J Invest Dermatol. 2006;126(2):258–64.
Lee J, Tumbar T. Hairy tale of signaling in hair follicle development and cycling. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2012;23(8):906–16.
Luan L, Shi J, Yu Z, Andl T. The major miR-31 target genes STK40 and LATS2 and their implications in the regulation of keratinocyte growth and hair differentiation. Exp Dermatol. 2017;26(6):497–504.
Botchkareva NV, Botchkarev VA, Gilchrest BA. Fate of melanocytes during development of the hair follicle pigmentary unit. J Invest Dermatol Symp Proc Soc Invest Dermatol Inc [and] Eur Soc Dermatol Res. 2003;8(1):76–9.
Botchkareva NV, Khlgatian M, Longley BJ, Botchkarev VA, Gilchrest BA. SCF/c-kit signaling is required for cyclic regeneration of the hair pigmentation unit. FASEB J Off Publ Fed Am Soc Exp Biol. 2001;15(3):645–58.
Hemesath TJ, Steingrimsson E, McGill G, Hansen MJ, Vaught J, Hodgkinson CA, et al. Microphthalmia, a critical factor in melanocyte development, defines a discrete transcription factor family. Genes Dev. 1994;8(22):2770–80.
Levy C, Khaled M, Fisher DE. MITF: master regulator of melanocyte development and melanoma oncogene. Trends Mol Med. 2006;12(9):406–14.
Yavuzer U, Keenan E, Lowings P, Vachtenheim J, Currie G, Goding CR. The Microphthalmia gene product interacts with the retinoblastoma protein in vitro and is a target for deregulation of melanocyte-specific transcription. Oncogene. 1995;10(1):123–34.
Dong C, Wang H, Xue L, Dong Y, Yang L, Fan R, et al. Coat color determination by miR-137 mediated down-regulation of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor in a mouse model. RNA. 2012;18(9):1679–86.
Barrientos S, Stojadinovic O, Golinko MS, Brem H, Tomic-Canic M. Growth factors and cytokines in wound healing. Wound Repair Reg Off Publ Wound Healing Soc [and] European Tissue Repair Soc. 2008;16(5):585–601.
Li J, Chen J, Kirsner R. Pathophysiology of acute wound healing. Clin Dermatol. 2007;25(1):9–18.
Schafer M, Werner S. Transcriptional control of wound repair. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 2007;23:69–92.
Shaw TJ, Martin P. Wound repair at a glance. J Cell Sci. 2009;122(Pt 18):3209–13.
Taylor G, Lehrer MS, Jensen PJ, Sun TT, Lavker RM. Involvement of follicular stem cells in forming not only the follicle but also the epidermis. Cell. 2000;102(4):451–61.
Cotsarelis G. Epithelial stem cells: a folliculocentric view. J Invest Dermatol. 2006;126(7):1459–68.
Langton AK, Herrick SE, Headon DJ. An extended epidermal response heals cutaneous wounds in the absence of a hair follicle stem cell contribution. J Invest Dermatol. 2008;128(5):1311–8.
Levy V, Lindon C, Zheng Y, Harfe BD, Morgan BA. Epidermal stem cells arise from the hair follicle after wounding. FASEB J Off Publ Fed Am Soc Exp Biol. 2007;21(7):1358–66.
Abe R, Donnelly SC, Peng T, Bucala R, Metz CN. Peripheral blood fibrocytes: differentiation pathway and migration to wound sites. J Immunol. 2001;166(12):7556–62.
Fathke C, Wilson L, Hutter J, Kapoor V, Smith A, Hocking A, et al. Contribution of bone marrow-derived cells to skin: collagen deposition and wound repair. Stem Cells. 2004;22(5):812–22.
Hinz B. Formation and function of the myofibroblast during tissue repair. J Invest Dermatol. 2007;127(3):526–37.
Wu Y, Zhao RC, Tredget EE. Concise review: bone marrow-derived stem/progenitor cells in cutaneous repair and regeneration. Stem Cells. 2010;28(5):905–15.
Bitterman PB, Rennard SI, Adelberg S, Crystal RG. Role of fibronectin as a growth factor for fibroblasts. J Cell Biol. 1983;97(6):1925–32.
Eckes B, Colucci-Guyon E, Smola H, Nodder S, Babinet C, Krieg T, et al. Impaired wound healing in embryonic and adult mice lacking vimentin. J Cell Sci. 2000;113(Pt 13):2455–62.
Min LJ, Cui TX, Yahata Y, Yamasaki K, Shiuchi T, Liu HW, et al. Regulation of collagen synthesis in mouse skin fibroblasts by distinct angiotensin II receptor subtypes. Endocrinology. 2004;145(1):253–60.
Tiedemann K, Malmstrom A, Westergren-Thorsson G. Cytokine regulation of proteoglycan production in fibroblasts: separate and synergistic effects. Matrix Biol J Int Soc Matrix Biol. 1997;15(7):469–78.
Jaul E. Non-healing wounds: the geriatric approach. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2009;49(2):224–6.
Sgonc R, Gruber J. Age-related aspects of cutaneous wound healing: a mini-review. Gerontology. 2013;59(2):159–64.
Bentov I, Damodarasamy M, Plymate S, Reed MJ. Decreased proliferative capacity of aged dermal fibroblasts in a three dimensional matrix is associated with reduced IGF1R expression and activation. Biogerontology. 2014;15(4):329–37.
Gosain A, DiPietro LA. Aging and wound healing. World J Surg. 2004;28(3):321–6.
Ghatak S, Chan YC, Khanna S, Banerjee J, Weist J, Roy S, et al. Barrier function of the repaired skin is disrupted following arrest of dicer in keratinocytes. Mol Ther. 2015;23(7):1201–10.
Devgan V, Nguyen BC, Oh H, Dotto GP. p21WAF1/Cip1 suppresses keratinocyte differentiation independently of the cell cycle through transcriptional up-regulation of the IGF-I gene. J Biol Chem. 2006;281(41):30463–70.
Li D, Li X, Wang A, Meisgen F, Pivarcsi A, Sonkoly E, et al. MicroRNA-31 promotes skin wound healing by enhancing keratinocyte proliferation and migration. J Invest Dermatol. 2015;135(6):1676–85.
Li D, Wang A, Liu X, Meisgen F, Grunler J, Botusan IR, et al. MicroRNA-132 enhances transition from inflammation to proliferation during wound healing. J Clin Invest. 2015;125(8):3008–26.
Joyce CE, Zhou X, Xia J, Ryan C, Thrash B, Menter A, et al. Deep sequencing of small RNAs from human skin reveals major alterations in the psoriasis miRNAome. Hum Mol Genet. 2011;20(20):4025–40.
Wang A, Landen NX, Meisgen F, Lohcharoenkal W, Stahle M, Sonkoly E, et al. MicroRNA-31 is overexpressed in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and regulates cell motility and colony formation ability of tumor cells. PLoS One. 2014;9(7):e103206.
Yan S, Xu Z, Lou F, Zhang L, Ke F, Bai J, et al. NF-kappaB-induced microRNA-31 promotes epidermal hyperplasia by repressing protein phosphatase 6 in psoriasis. Nat Commun. 2015;6:7652.
Durgan J, Tao G, Walters MS, Florey O, Schmidt A, Arbelaez V, et al. SOS1 and Ras regulate epithelial tight junction formation in the human airway through EMP1. EMBO Rep. 2015;16(1):87–96.
Sun GG, Wang YD, Cui DW, Cheng YJ, Hu WN. Epithelial membrane protein 1 negatively regulates cell growth and metastasis in colorectal carcinoma. World J Gastroenterol. 2014;20(14):4001–10.
Sun GG, Wang YD, Lu YF, Hu WN. EMP1, a member of a new family of antiproliferative genes in breast carcinoma. Tumour Biol J Int Soc Oncodevelopmental Biol Med. 2014;35(4):3347–54.
Li H, Chang L, Du WW, Gupta S, Khorshidi A, Sefton M, et al. Anti-microRNA-378a enhances wound healing process by upregulating integrin beta-3 and vimentin. Mol Ther. 2014;22(10):1839–50.
Gras C, Ratuszny D, Hadamitzky C, Zhang H, Blasczyk R, Figueiredo C. miR-145 contributes to hypertrophic scarring of the skin by inducing myofibroblast activity. Mol Med. 2015;21:296–304.
Kwan P, Ding J, Tredget EE. MicroRNA 181b regulates decorin production by dermal fibroblasts and may be a potential therapy for hypertrophic scar. PLoS One. 2015;10(4):e0123054.
Danielson KG, Baribault H, Holmes DF, Graham H, Kadler KE, Iozzo RV. Targeted disruption of decorin leads to abnormal collagen fibril morphology and skin fragility. J Cell Biol. 1997;136(3):729–43.
Jarvelainen H, Puolakkainen P, Pakkanen S, Brown EL, Hook M, Iozzo RV, et al. A role for decorin in cutaneous wound healing and angiogenesis. Wound Repair Reg Off Publ Wound Healing Soc [and] European Tissue Repair Soc. 2006;14(4):443–52.
Cheng J, Wang Y, Wang D, Wu Y. Identification of collagen 1 as a post-transcriptional target of miR-29b in skin fibroblasts: therapeutic implication for scar reduction. Am J Med Sci. 2013;346(2):98–103.
Ciechomska M, O’Reilly S, Suwara M, Bogunia-Kubik K, van Laar JM. MiR-29a reduces TIMP-1 production by dermal fibroblasts via targeting TGF-beta activated kinase 1 binding protein 1, implications for systemic sclerosis. PLoS One. 2014;9(12):e115596.
Maurer B, Stanczyk J, Jungel A, Akhmetshina A, Trenkmann M, Brock M, et al. MicroRNA-29, a key regulator of collagen expression in systemic sclerosis. Arthritis Rheum. 2010;62(6):1733–43.
Pastar I, Khan AA, Stojadinovic O, Lebrun EA, Medina MC, Brem H, et al. Induction of specific microRNAs inhibits cutaneous wound healing. J Biol Chem. 2012;287(35):29324–35.
Frank S, Stallmeyer B, Kampfer H, Kolb N, Pfeilschifter J. Leptin enhances wound re-epithelialization and constitutes a direct function of leptin in skin repair. J Clin Invest. 2000;106(4):501–9.
Murad A, Nath AK, Cha ST, Demir E, Flores-Riveros J, Sierra-Honigmann MR. Leptin is an autocrine/paracrine regulator of wound healing. FASEB J Off Publ Fed Am Soc Exp Biol. 2003;17(13):1895–7.
Tadokoro S, Ide S, Tokuyama R, Umeki H, Tatehara S, Kataoka S, et al. Leptin promotes wound healing in the skin. PLoS One. 2015;10(3):e0121242.
Ahmed MI, Mardaryev AN, Lewis CJ, Sharov AA, Botchkareva NV. MicroRNA-21 is an important downstream component of BMP signalling in epidermal keratinocytes. J Cell Sci. 2011;124(Pt 20):3399–404.
Lewis CJ, Mardaryev AN, Poterlowicz K, Sharova TY, Aziz A, Sharpe DT, et al. Bone morphogenetic protein signaling suppresses wound-induced skin repair by inhibiting keratinocyte proliferation and migration. J Invest Dermatol. 2014;134(3):827–37.
Lewis CJ, Mardaryev AN, Sharpe DT, Botchkareva NV. Inhibition of bone morphogenetic protein signalling promotes wound healing in a human ex vivo model. Eur J Plast Surg. 2015;38(1):1–12.
Madhyastha R, Madhyastha H, Nakajima Y, Omura S, Maruyama M. MicroRNA signature in diabetic wound healing: promotive role of miR-21 in fibroblast migration. Int Wound J. 2012;9(4):355–61.
Geiger A, Walker A, Nissen E. Human fibrocyte-derived exosomes accelerate wound healing in genetically diabetic mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015;467(2):303–9.
Editors and Affiliations
Rights and permissions
© 2018 Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature
About this chapter
Cite this chapter
Botchkareva, N.V., Yi, R. (2018). Orchestrated Role of microRNAs in Skin Development and Regeneration. In: Botchkarev, V., Millar, S. (eds) Epigenetic Regulation of Skin Development and Regeneration. Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine. Humana Press, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-16769-5_7
Publisher Name: Humana Press, Cham
Print ISBN: 978-3-319-16768-8
Online ISBN: 978-3-319-16769-5
eBook Packages: Biomedical and Life SciencesBiomedical and Life Sciences (R0)