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Harvesting Energy by Flow Included Motions

  • Chapter
Springer Handbook of Ocean Engineering

Part of the book series: Springer Handbooks ((SHB))

Abstract

Marine hydrokinetic (GlossaryTerm

MHK

) energy is clean, renewable, and available worldwide. It comes in two forms: vertical in waves and horizontal in currents, tides, and rivers. Apart from a few major ocean currents, most of the ocean currents have flow speeds less than 3 kn and most rivers have speeds less than 2 kn, making harvesting of their GlossaryTerm

MHK

energy by steady-lift technologies (turbines) challenging. Horizontal GlossaryTerm

MHK

energy can also be harnessed using alternating-lift technologies (GlossaryTerm

ALT

s). Fish utilize alternating lift to propel efficiently in water either as individuals or in schools. Engineered structures – bluff bodies, such as circular cylinders and prisms, or slender bodies like hydrofoils – may generate alternating lift in quasi-steady uniform flows. When these structures have scale-relevant flexibility, severe flow–structure interaction (GlossaryTerm

FSI

) phenomena may be induced. In typical engineering applications, GlossaryTerm

FSI

phenomena are destructive and, thus, avoided by design or suppressed using excessive damping or appendages. If GlossaryTerm

FSI

are instead enhanced, they may result in vigorous flow-induced motion (GlossaryTerm

FIM

) of the body, leading to the conversion of GlossaryTerm

MHK

energy to potential and kinetic energy in a mechanical oscillator. Hydrofoils can harvest GlossaryTerm

MHK

energy through flutter – a well-studied and understood form of instability. On the other hand, bluff bodies, such as circular or rectangular cross-section cylinders, may exhibit several forms of GlossaryTerm

FIM

, individually or in schools that have been studied extensively but still are not well understood for either suppression or enhancement. Those GlossaryTerm

FIM

s are vortex-induced vibration (GlossaryTerm

VIV

), galloping, buffeting, and gap flow in multibody interactions. When enhanced, they convert GlossaryTerm

MHK

energy to mechanical energy with high-power density (power-to-weight ratio) even from low-speed horizontal flows. This chapter presents an overview of the concepts of GlossaryTerm

ALT

s, the underlying physical principles, the available experimental and computational methods for studying the relevant GlossaryTerm

FIM

, the research challenges that have been overcome and those lying ahead, field-deployment progress, technology development, and bench marking.

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Abbreviations

1-D:

one-dimensional

2-D-URANS:

two-dimensional unsteady, Reynolds-Averaged, Navier–Stokes

2-D:

two-dimensional

3-D:

three-dimensional

ALT:

alternating-lift technology

AUV:

autonomous underwater vehicle

CFD:

Computational Fluid Dynamics

DAC:

digital-to-analog conversion

FFT:

fast Fourier transform

FIM:

flow-induced motion

FSI:

flow–structure interaction

LDV:

laser-Doppler velocimetry

LTFSW:

low-turbulence free-surface water

LTI:

linear time invariant

MHK:

marine hydrokinetic

OHMSETT:

oil and hazardous materials simulated environmental test tank

PISO:

pressure implicit with splitting of operators

PIV:

particle image velocimetry

PTC:

passive turbulence control

RPS:

renewable portfolio standard

SLT:

steady-lift technology

SS:

strong suppression

TRL:

technology readiness level

VHE:

Vortex Hydro Energy

VIVACE:

vortex-induced vibrations for aquatic clean energy

VIV:

vortex-induced vibration

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Bernitsas, M.M. (2016). Harvesting Energy by Flow Included Motions. In: Dhanak, M.R., Xiros, N.I. (eds) Springer Handbook of Ocean Engineering. Springer Handbooks. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-16649-0_47

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