Advertisement

Benefits of Exercise for Older Adults

  • Melissa J. BentonEmail author

Key Points

  • Exercise improves important outcomes for older adults, including functional status, longevity, and healthcare costs.

  • Exercise can be used to prevent, treat, or palliate chronic conditions commonly experienced by older adults, including heart disease, diabetes, osteoarthritis, falls, and depression.

  • The greatest benefits are seen in sedentary older adults who begin a moderate-level exercise program.

Keywords

Cardiovascular disease Hypertension Stroke Cancer Breast cancer Gastrointestinal cancer Prostate cancer Chronic respiratory disease Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Dementia Alzheimer’s disease Diabetes type 2 Depression Osteoarthritis Sarcopenia 

References

  1. 1.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Injury prevention & control: data & statistics: centers for disease control and prevention. National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. 2012. http://www.cdc.gov/injury/wisqars/LeadingCauses.html. (updated August 8, 2013; cited 2014 July 9).
  2. 2.
    Mokdad AH, Marks JS, Stroup DF, Gerberding JL. Actual causes of death in the United States, 2000. JAMA. 2004;291(10):1238–45.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee. 2008 Physical activity guidelines for Americans. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2008. Available from: http://www.health.gov/paguidelines/.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Shiroma EJ, Lee IM. Physical activity and cardiovascular health: lessons learned from epidemiological studies across age, gender, and race/ethnicity. Circulation. 2010;122(7):743–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Blair SN, Kohl 3rd HW, Paffenbarger Jr RS, Clark DG, Cooper KH, Gibbons LW. Physical fitness and all-cause mortality. A prospective study of healthy men and women. JAMA. 1989;262(17):2395–401.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Martinez DG, Nicolau JC, Lage RL, Toschi-Dias E, de Matos LD, Alves MJ, et al. Effects of long-term exercise training on autonomic control in myocardial infarction patients. Hypertension. 2011;58(6):1049–56.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lan C, Chen SY, Wong MK, Lai JS. Tai chi chuan exercise for patients with cardiovascular disease. Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine. eCAM. 2013;2013:983208.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cornelissen VA, Smart NA. Exercise training for blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Heart Assoc. 2013;2(1):e004473.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Carlson DJ, Dieberg G, Hess NC, Millar PJ, Smart NA. Isometric exercise training for blood pressure management: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Mayo Clinic Proc. 2014;89(3):327–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Davies EJ, Moxham T, Rees K, Singh S, Coats AJ, Ebrahim S, et al. Exercise training for systolic heart failure: Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Heart Failure. 2010;12(7):706–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cahalin LP, Arena R, Guazzi M, Myers J, Cipriano G, Chiappa G, et al. Inspiratory muscle training in heart disease and heart failure: a review of the literature with a focus on method of training and outcomes. Expert Rev cardiovasc Ther. 2013;11(2):161–77.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Huxley RR, Misialek JR, Agarwal SK, Loehr LR, Soliman EZ, Chen LY, et al. Physical activity, obesity, weight change and risk of atrial fibrillation: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2014;7:620–5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Reed JL, Mark AE, Reid RD, Pipe AL. The effects of chronic exercise training in individuals with permanent atrial fibrillation: a systematic review. Can J Cardiol. 2013;29(12):1721–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pang MY, Charlesworth SA, Lau RW, Chung RC. Using aerobic exercise to improve health outcomes and quality of life in stroke: evidence-based exercise prescription recommendations. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2013;35(1):7–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Schmid D, Leitzmann MF. Association between physical activity and mortality among breast cancer and colorectal cancer survivors: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Oncol. 2014;25(7):1293–311.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Puhan MA, Gimeno-Santos E, Scharplatz M, Troosters T, Walters EH, Steurer J. Pulmonary rehabilitation following exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;10, CD005305.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Strasser B, Siebert U, Schobersberger W. Effects of resistance training on respiratory function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sleep Breath. 2013;17(1):217–26.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    McNamara RJ, McKeough ZJ, McKenzie DK, Alison JA. Water-based exercise training for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;12, CD008290.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Aarsland D, Sardahaee FS, Anderssen S, Ballard C, Alzheimer’s Society Systematic Review Group. Is physical activity a potential preventive factor for vascular dementia? A systematic review. Aging Ment Health. 2010;14(4):386–95.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bherer L, Erickson KI, Liu-Ambrose T. A review of the effects of physical activity and exercise on cognitive and brain functions in older adults. J Aging Res. 2013;2013:657508.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Forbes D, Thiessen EJ, Blake CM, Forbes SC, Forbes S. Exercise programs for people with dementia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;12, CD006489.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Montero D, Walther G, Benamo E, Perez-Martin A, Vinet A. Effects of exercise training on arterial function in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Med. 2013;43(11):1191–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Forsman AK, Schierenbeck I, Wahlbeck K. Psychosocial interventions for the prevention of depression in older adults: systematic review and meta-analysis. J Aging Health. 2011;23(3):387–416.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bridle C, Spanjers K, Patel S, Atherton NM, Lamb SE. Effect of exercise on depression severity in older people: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Br J Psychiatry. 2012;201(3):180–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Loew L, Brosseau L, Wells GA, Tugwell P, Kenny GP, Reid R, et al. Ottawa panel evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for aerobic walking programs in the management of osteoarthritis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2012;93(7):1269–85.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Cadore EL, Rodriguez-Manas L, Sinclair A, Izquierdo M. Effects of different exercise interventions on risk of falls, gait ability, and balance in physically frail older adults: a systematic review. Rejuvenation Res. 2013;16(2):105–14.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Resources

  1. Exercise is Medicine. Exercise is Medicine® aims to make physical activity a standard in the healthcare system through integration of clinical healthcare provider services with evidence-based community programs, and to provide a clinical decision support system so that clinicians can provide physical activity counseling. http://www.exerciseismedicine.org/.
  2. Go4Life. Go4Life® is an exercise and physical activity campaign from the National Institute on Aging that is designed to help older adults fit exercise and physical activity into their daily life. http://go4life.nia.nih.gov/.
  3. Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. The Physical Activity Guidelines provide science-based guidance to maintain or improve health through regular physical activity. http://www.health.gov/paguidelines/guidelines/.
  4. Silver Sneakers. Silver Sneakers Fitness® is a Medicare eligible program that helps older adults take greater control of their health by encouraging physical activity and providing benefits such as gym memberships. https://www.silversneakers.com/.

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Beth-El College of Nursing and Health SciencesUniversity of Colorado at Colorado SpringsColorado SpringsUSA

Personalised recommendations