Hypertension: Introduction, Types, Causes, and Complications

  • Yoshihiro KokuboEmail author
  • Yoshio Iwashima
  • Kei Kamide


Hypertension remains one of the most significant causes of mortality worldwide. It is preventable by medication and lifestyle modification. Office blood pressure (BP), out-of-office BP measurement with ambulatory BP monitoring, and self-BP measurement at home are reliable and important data for assessing hypertension. Primary hypertension can be defined as an elevated BP of unknown cause due to cardiovascular risk factors resulting from changes in environmental and lifestyle factors. Another type, secondary hypertension, is caused by various toxicities, iatrogenic disease, and congenital diseases. Complications of hypertension are the clinical outcomes of persistently high BP that result in cardiovascular disease (CVD), atherosclerosis, kidney disease, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, preeclampsia, erectile dysfunction, and eye disease. Treatment strategies for hypertension consist of lifestyle modifications (which include a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and low-fat food or fish with a reduced content of saturated and total fat, salt restriction, appropriate body weight, regular exercise, moderate alcohol consumption, and smoking cessation) and drug therapies, although these vary somewhat according to different published hypertension treatment guidelines.


Blood pressure Epidemiology Lifestyle Preventive medicine Guidelines Vegetables/fruits Fish Sodium restriction Essential hypertension Secondary hypertension Combination therapy 


Sources of Funding

This study was supported by grants-in-aid from the Ministry of Education, Science, and Culture of Japan (Nos. 25293147 and 26670320), the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare of Japan (H26-Junkankitou [Seisaku]-Ippan-001), the Rice Health Database Maintenance industry, Tojuro Iijima Memorial Food Science, the Intramural Research Fund of the National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center (22-4-5).


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Preventive CardiologyNational Cerebral and Cardiovascular CenterSuita, OsakaJapan
  2. 2.Divisions of Hypertension and NephrologyNational Cerebral and Cardiovascular CenterSuita, OsakaJapan
  3. 3.Division of Health ScienceOsaka University Graduate School of MedicineSuita, OsakaJapan

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