Skip to main content

Cure Violence: Treating Violence As a Contagious Disease

  • Chapter

Abstract

The Cure Violence Health Model is a health approach for reducing violence. This model is based on established methods that have been shown to control other epidemic diseases. It is derived from a synthesis of the fields of epidemiology, infectious diseases, behavioral science, social psychology, and neuroscience.

Keywords

  • Violent Behavior
  • Violent Community
  • Violence Prevention
  • Epidemic Disease
  • Outreach Worker

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-15868-6_5
  • Chapter length: 14 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   44.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-319-15868-6
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   59.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   89.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

Notes

  1. 1.

    Other elements are also important including environmental control.

  2. 2.

    Overall reductions in shootings in the seven program sites were between 41 and 73%. When comparing to control communities to control for other factors such as law enforcement, statistically significant reductions that were specifically attributable to the CeaseFire program were found to be between 16 and 28% in four communities by time series analysis. Hot spot analysis found reductions of shooting density between 15 and 40% in four partially overlapping communities. Six of the seven communities examined had reductions due to the program as determined by either time series analysis or hot spot analysis. The seventh community had 100% drop in retaliation homicides and large reductions in shootings, but the neighboring comparison community had similar reductions.

References

  • Archer, D., & Gartner, R. (1976). Violent acts and violent times: A comparative approach to postwar homicide rates. American Sociological Review, 41, 937–963.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Baldry, A. C. (2003). Animal abuse and exposure to interparental violence in Italian youth. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 18, 258–281.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ball, J. D. (2009). Intergenerational transmission of abuse of incarcerated fathers: A study of measurement of abuse. Journal of Family Issues, 30, 371–390.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bingenheimer, J., Brennan, R., & Earls, F. (2005). Firearm violence exposure and serious violent behavior. Science, 308, 1323–1326.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Black, D. S., Sussman, S., & Unger, J. B. (2010). A further look at the intergenerational transmission of violence: Witnessing interparental violence in emerging adulthood. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 25, 1022–1042.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bulliet, R., Kyle Crossley, P., Headrick, D. R., Hirsch, S. W., Johnson, L. L., & Northrup, D. (2001). The earth and its peoples. New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin Company.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chicago Police Department’s CLEAR (Citizen Law Enforcement Analysis and Reporting) System. (2010). Retrieved from https://data.cityofchicago.org/Public-Safety/Crimes-2001-to-present/ijzp-q8t2

  • Duman, S., & Margolin, G. (2007). Parents’ aggressive influences and children’s aggressive problem solutions with peers. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 36(1), 42–55.

    Google Scholar 

  • Egeland, B. (1993). A history of abuse is a major risk factor for abusing the next generation. In R. J. Gelles & D. R. Loseke (Eds.), Current controversies on family violence (pp. 197–208). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ehrensaft, M. K., Cohen, P., Brown, J., Smailes, E., Chen, H., & Johnson, J. G. (2003). Intergenerational transmission of partner violence: A 20-year prospective study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 741–753.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Eisenberger, N. I. (2012). The neural bases of social pain: Evidence for shared representations with physical pain. Psychosomatic Medicine, 74, 126–135.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Eisenberger, N. I., & Lieberman, M. D. (2005). Broken hearts and broken bones: the neurocognitive overlap between social pain and physical pain. In K. D. Williams, J. P. Forgas, & W. von Hippel (Eds.), The social outcast: Ostracism, social exclusion, rejection, and bullying (pp. 109–127). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ertem, I. O., Levanthal, J., & Dobbs, S. (2000). Intergenerational continuity of child physical abuse: How good is the evidence? The Lancet, 356, 814–819.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Fox, J. A., & Zawitz, M. W. (2003). Homicide trends in the United States: 2000 update. Bureau of Justice Assistance. Retrieved from http://www.bjs.gov/index.cfm?ty=pbdetail&iid=968

  • Giesecke, J. (1994). Modern infectious disease epidemiology. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gilovich, T., Keltner, D., & Nisbett, R. E. (2011). Social psychology (2nd ed.). New York, NY: W.W. Norton.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gould, M. S., Greenberg, T., Velting, D. M., & Shaffer, D. (2010). Youth suicide risk and preventive interventions: A review of the past 10 years. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 42, 386–405.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Henderson, D. A., Courtney, B., Inglesby, T. V., Toner, E., & Nuzzo, J. B. (2009). Public health and medical responses to the 1957–58 influenze pandemic. Biosecurity and Bioterrorism: Biodefense Strategy, Practice, and Science, 7(3), 265–273.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Henry, D. B., Knoblauch, S., & Sigurvinsdottir, R. (2014). The effect of intensive ceasefire intervention on crime in four Chicago police beats: Quantitative assessment. Chicago, IL: Robert R. McCormick Foundation.

    Google Scholar 

  • Iacoboni, M., Molnar-Szakacs, I., Gallese, V., Buccino, G., Mazziotta, J. C., & Rizzolatti, G. (2005). Grasping the intentions of others with one’s own mirror neuron system. PLoS Biology, 3(3), e79.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Institute of Medicine. (2013). Contagion of violence. Forum on Global Violence Prevention. IOM and National Research Council of the National Academies.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kinney, J. (1983). Relapse among alcoholics who are alcoholism counselors. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 44(4), 744–748.

    Google Scholar 

  • MacManus, D., Dean, K., Jones, M., Rona, R., Greenburg, N., Hull, L., …, Nicola, F. (2013). Violent offending by UK military personnel deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan: a data linkage cohort study. The Lancet, 381, 907–917.

    Google Scholar 

  • Perry, B. D. (2001). The neurodevelopmental impact of violence in childhood. In D. Schetky & E. P. Benedek (Eds.), Textbook of child and adolescent forensic psychiatry (pp. 221–238). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Picard-Fritsche, S., & Cerniglia, L. (2012). Testing a public health approach to gun violence. New York, NY: Center for Court Innovation.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ransford, C. L., Kane, C., Metzger, T., Quintana, E., & Slutkin, G. (2010). An Examination of the Role of CeaseFire, the Chicago Police, Project Safe Neighborhoods, and Displacement in the Reduction in Homicide in Chicago in 2004. In Youth Gangs and Community Intervention. Ed. Chaskin, R. J. Columbia University Press: New York.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ransford, C. L., Kane, C. M., & Slutkin, G. (2013). Cure violence: A disease control approach to reduce violence and change behavior. In E. Waltermaurer & T. Akers (Eds.), Epidemiological criminology. London, UK: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rhodes, C. & White, C., & Kohler, M. F. (1974). The role of the so-called paraprofessional in the six years of IDAP. In E. Senay, V. Shorty, & H. Alksne (Eds.). Developments in the field of drug abuse (pp. 1051–1066). Cambridge, MA: Schenkman.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ruiz-Moreno, D., Pascual, M., Emch, M., & Yunus, M. (2010). Spatial clustering in the spatio-temporal dynamics of endemic cholera. BMC Infectious Diseases, 10(51), 10–51.

    Google Scholar 

  • Skogan, W., Harnett, S. M., Bump, N., & DuBois, J. (2009). Evaluation of ceasefire-Chicago. Chicago, IL: Northwestern University Institute for Policy Research.

    Google Scholar 

  • Slutkin, G. (2013). Violence is a contagious disease. The Contagion of Violence. Institute of Medicine. Retrieved from www.cureviolence.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/iom.pdf

  • Slutkin, G., Okware, S., Naamara, W., Sutherland, D., Flanagan, D., Carael, M., …, Tarantola, D. (2006). How Uganda reversed its HIV epidemic’. AIDS and Behavior, 10, 351–360.

    Google Scholar 

  • Spano, R., Rivera, C., & Bolland, J. (2010). Are chronic exposure to violence and chronic violent behavior closely related developmental processes during adolescence? Criminal Justice and Behavior, 37, 1160–1179.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Webster, D. W., Whitehill, J. M., Vernick, J. S., & Parker, E. M. (2012). Evaluation of Baltimore’s safe streets program: Effects on attitudes, participants’ experiences, and gun violence. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Center for the Prevention of Youth Violence.

    Google Scholar 

  • Widom, C. S. (1989). Does violence beget violence? A critical examination of the literature. Psychological Bulletin, 106(1), 3–28.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Yan, E., & Tang, C. S. (2003). Proclivity to elder abuse: A community study on Hong Kong Chinese. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 18, 999–1017.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Zeoli, A. M., Pizarro, J. M., Grady, S. C., & Melde, C. (2012). Homicide as infectious disease: Using public health methods to investigate the diffusion of homicide. Justice Quarterly, 31(3), 609–632.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Gary Slutkin .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2015 Springer International Publishing Switzerland

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Slutkin, G., Ransford, C., Decker, R.B. (2015). Cure Violence: Treating Violence As a Contagious Disease. In: Maltz, M., Rice, S. (eds) Envisioning Criminology. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-15868-6_5

Download citation