Skip to main content


  • 2216 Accesses


Artistic gymnastics is a sport in which the foot and ankle is the most commonly injured body area. The forces on the foot and ankle are very high in this barefoot sport. Simple inversion ankle sprains are the most frequent injury but more significant sever injuries can occur. Ottawa Ankle Rules are beneficial but remember their growth plates may remain open longer than usual since there maturation may be delayed. Rehabilitation needs to be done barefooted since it is a barefoot sport. Joint play of the foot and ankle is of therapeutic benefit. Progressions of force by performing a jump program may be an asset to assisting the gymnast back to safe performance. Skills progression needs to be done in manner in which a gradual progression of forces is reintroduced after an injury. Proper use of training aids can be a significant asset for injury prevention. Open and closed chain exercises, intrinsic and extrinsic muscle strength as well as static and dynamic proprioception/kinesthetic awareness exercises are all vital for a proper injury prevention program to have the best outcome.


  • Gymnastics
  • Artistic
  • Foot
  • Ankle
  • Rehabilitation
  • Prevention
  • Manipulation
  • Training
  • Forces
  • Injury

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-15735-1_55
  • Chapter length: 5 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
USD   149.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-319-15735-1
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   199.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   279.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Fig. 55.1
Fig. 55.2
Fig. 55.3


  1. 1.

    Jump up 18 in. is typically as high as needed, but the jump down can increase to help with the landing forces.


  1. Brueggemann GP. Mechanical load of the Achilles tendon during rapid sport movements. In: Perren SM, Scheider M, editors. Biomechanics: current interdisciplinary research. Dordrecht: Martinu, Nijhoff; 1985.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Panzer VP. Dynamic assessment of lower extremity load characteristics during landing [PhD]. University of Oregon; 1987. Dufek, JS, Bates BT. Biomechanical factors associated with injury during landing in jump sports. Sports Medicine. 1991; 12(5): 326–337.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Hall SJ. Mechanical contributions to lumbar stress injuries in female gymnasts. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1986;18:599–602.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Dixon M, Fricker P. Injuries in elite gymnasts over 10 years. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1993;25:1322–9.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Mackie SJ, Taunton JE. Injuries in female gymnasts. Trends Suggest Prevent Tactics. 1994;22:40–5.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Stiell IG, Greenberg GH, McKnight RD, Nair RC, McDowell I, Reardon M. Decision rules for the use of radiography in acute ankle injuries. Refinement and prospective validation. JAMA. 1993;269:1127–32.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. Mennell JM. Joint pain. Boston: Little, Brown and Company; 1964.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Kavanagh J. Is there a positional fault at the inferior tibiofibular joint in patients with acute or chronic ankle sprains compared to normal. Man Ther. 1999;4(1):19–24.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Larry Nassar DO, FAOASM .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2016 Springer International Publishing Switzerland

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Nassar, L. (2016). Gymnastics. In: Valderrabano, V., Easley, M. (eds) Foot and Ankle Sports Orthopaedics. Springer, Cham.

Download citation

  • DOI:

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-319-15734-4

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-319-15735-1

  • eBook Packages: MedicineMedicine (R0)