Oxidative Stress in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

  • Montserrat Marí
  • Albert Morales
  • Anna Colell
  • Carmen García-Ruiz
  • José C. Fernandez-Checa
Part of the Oxidative Stress in Applied Basic Research and Clinical Practice book series (OXISTRESS)

Abstract

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the most prevalent cause of liver disease in Western countries and represents a spectrum of diseases ranging from simple steatosis through steatohepatitis (NASH) and fibrosis, which can further progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. While fatty liver is a benign condition, and triglyceride accumulation actually serves as “sink” or protective pathway in lipid metabolism, a growing body of evidence suggests that the type rather than the quantity of lipids accumulating may play a central role in disease progression. In fact, lipids such as free fatty acids and cholesterol, among others, have been associated to lipotoxicity, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Oxidative stress, characterized by an imbalance between pro- and antioxidant mechanisms, followed by mitochondrial dysfunction are thought to play a key role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Different sources of oxidative stress coexists in hepatocytes especially those derived from mitochondrial, microsomal, peroxisomal, and lysosomal origin, many of them linked to FFA metabolism, as we will discuss in detail.

Keywords

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease Oxidative stress Free fatty acids Lipotoxicity Lipogenesis Steatosis Mitochondrial Dysfunction Cholesterol Glutathione Ceramide Reactive oxygen species CYP2E1 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Montserrat Marí
    • 1
    • 2
  • Albert Morales
    • 3
  • Anna Colell
    • 4
  • Carmen García-Ruiz
    • 5
    • 6
  • José C. Fernandez-Checa
    • 7
    • 8
  1. 1.Department of Cell Death and ProliferationInstitute of Biomedical Research of Barcelona - Spanish National Research Council, IDIBAPS, Liver Unit-Hospital Clinic, Networked Biomedical Research Center for Hepatic and Digestive DiseaseBarcelonaSpain
  2. 2.Centre Esther KoplowitzBarcelonaSpain
  3. 3.Department of Cell Death and ProliferationInstitute of Biomedical Research of Barcelona - Spanish National Research Council and Liver Unit-Hospital Clinic, Networked Biomedical Research Center for Hepatic and Digestive DiseasesBarcelonaSpain
  4. 4.Department of Cell Death and ProliferationInstitute of Biomedical Research of Barcelona - Spanish National Research Council, The August Pi i Sunyer Biomedical Research Institute, Liver Unit-Hospital Clínic, Networked Biomedical Research Center for Hepatic and Digestive DiseasesBarcelonaSpain
  5. 5.Department of Cell Death and ProliferationInstitute of Biomedical Research of Barcelona (IIBB), Consejo Superior Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) and Liver Unit-Hospital Clinic and Networked Biomedical Research Center for Hepatic and Digestive DiseasesBarcelonaSpain
  6. 6.Southern California Research Center for ALPD and Cirrhosis, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  7. 7.Department of Cell Death and ProliferationInstitute of Biomedical Research of Barcelona (IIBB), Spanish National Research Council and Liver Unit-Hospital Clinic and CIBEREHDBarcelonaSpain
  8. 8.Southern California Research Center for ALPD and CirrhosisKeck School of Medicine of the University of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA

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